D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

The Scholars 2

                         Dr. Xu Zhiyong (许志永)


 许志永 赵常青 XU Zhiyong ZHOU Changqing

China Releases Legal Scholar Xu Zhiyong After Four Years in Jail

Bloomberg News

July 15, 2017

Xu Zhiyong, 44, founder of the New Citizens’ Movement, was released Saturday after completing a four-year prison sentence for gathering a crowd to disturb the public order, according to a statement on the Beijing Municipal Administration of Prisons website. The legal scholar was detained in July 2013 after calling for the release of fellow activists who’d urged top officials to disclose their assets.

Xu and Liu were among more than 1,400 political and religious dissidents imprisoned in the country as of October, according to the U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, which said “considerably more” cases have probably not been reported. Liu is the first Nobel laureate to die under guard since pacifist and Nazism critic Carl von Ossietzky’s death in Germany in 1938.



On January 26, 2014, the Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court announced via Weibo that it had sentenced Xu Zhiyong to 4 years' imprisonment for "gathering a crowd to disturb order in a public place". Authorities had confined Xu, a leading rights advocate and proponent of the New Citizens' Movement, to his home in Beijing municipality for 3 months prior to criminally detaining him on July 16, and formally arresting him on August 22 (NYT, 17 July 13, 23 August 13). In a December 13 indictment, authorities alleged Xu was a "ringleader" of incidents that took place in 2012 and 2013 during which individuals called for education equality and government transparency (China Change, 21 December 13). Xu formally appealed the verdict on February 3, 2014 (China Change, 8 February 14). On April 11, 2014, the Beijing Municipal High People's Court rejected Xu's appeal and upheld the original sentence (NYT, 11April 14). Authorities reportedly transferred Xu to Liulin Prison, located in Tianjin municipality (Hu Jia, Twitter, 2 December 14). Xu is a former law lecturer and founded the legal aid NGO, Open Constitution Initiative.

(China Change, April 04 2014)

                                         Dr. Xu Zhiyong (许志永)



                                       Dr. Xu Zhiyong (许志永)

In 2003, Xu Zhiyong volunteered to be the lawyer of Sun Dawu upon his arrest. His lawyers disputed the charges of fostering financial disorder, pointing to the general disarray of China’s finances.  Harvard Law School educated Xu Zhiyong, one of China’s leading lawyers, published an article titled “Why We Should Defend Sun Dawu.”


Opening statement of defence lawyers in 2003

The full defence team consisted of Dr. Xu Zhiyong, Zhang Xing and Zhu Jiuhu


The formal arrest of one of China's most well-known civil rights advocates underscores how unnerved the country's new leaders are by any independent, vaguely organized political action--even if it is as mundane as gathering for a dinner party.  

Beijing activist Xu Zhiyong was arrested. He is one of the founders of a loose network of campaigners known as the New Citizens Movement who among other things have called on people to get together on the last Saturday of each month for dinner to discuss China's constitution and other legal issues.



"No matter how utterly defeated or absurd this society is, this country needs brave citizens who can stand up and hold fast to their convictions, who can take their rights, responsibilities and their dreams seriously".


                  2004 Year   Dr. Xu Zhiyong   Sun Dawu   Zhang Xing

Xu Zhiyong, a legal scholar, has been at the forefront of campaigns for rights in China for the past decade. He cofounded the Open Constitution Initiative, an independent center, which brought together rights lawyers, liberal intellectuals, journalists and citizen activists to work for rule of law in China from 2006-2009. Dr. Xu’s landmark article in 2012, China Needs a New Citizens’ Movement, helped define and encourage hundreds of initiatives to help citizens assert their rights and demand accountability. Dr. Xu and dozens of others involved in the New Citizens’ Movement have been detained since 2013. Dr. Xu received a four-year prison sentence in January 2014, after a closed-door trial found him guilty of “gathering a crowd and disturbing public order.”  Xu Zhiyong  received the Democracy Award  in Washington,  D.C. from the National Endowment for Democracy in May 2014.


National Endowment for Democracy



                                  Xu Zhiyong (许志永)     right side

The “new” in New Citizens’ Movement refers to new historical conditions, new forms of behavior, and a new liberal order. The counterpart of the new citizen is not the citizen, but the subject, of the past. The new historical conditions include technological advancement, market economies, ideological pluralism, and the common democratic trend in human society. The new forms of behavior are the lawful defense of citizens’ rights, citizens’ non-violent non-cooperation, and peaceful democracy movements, all under a new system of ideas and discourse. The new liberal order is the constitutional order of democracy, rule of law, republicanism. The social background of the New Citizens’ Movement is new, the model of behavior is new, the movement’s goal is new, and thus it is called the New Citizens’ Movement.                   


                            Anniversary of Imprisonment
                            of Civil Right's Lawyer Xu Zhiyong

Xu Zhiyong: For freedom, righteousness, love - my court.

Author: Xu Zhiyong New Citizen Movement (Authorized)



发表时间 22-01-2014 更改时间 22-01-2014 发表时间 18:43




































Xu Zhiyong

Short Summary

On January 26, 2014, the Beijing No. 1 Intermediate People's Court announced via Weibo that it had sentenced Xu Zhiyong to 4 years' imprisonment for "gathering a crowd to disturb orderin a public place". Authorities had confined Xu, a leading rights advocate and proponent of the New Citizens' Movement, to his home in Beijing municipality for 3 months prior to criminally detaining him on July 16, and formally arresting him on August 22 (NYT, 17 July 13, 23 August 13). In a December 13 indictment, authorities alleged Xu was a "ringleader" of incidents that took place in 2012 and 2013 during which individuals called for education equality and government transparency (China Change, 21 December 13). Xu formally appealed the verdict on February 3, 2014 (China Change, 8 February 14). On April 11, 2014, the Beijing Municipal High People's Court rejected Xu's appeal and upheld the original sentence (NYT, 11April 14). Authorities reportedly transferred Xu to Liulin Prison, located in Tianjin municipality (Hu Jia, Twitter, 2 December 14). Xu is a former law lecturer and founded the legal aid NGO, Open Constitution Initiative (China Change, 10 April 14).

Congressional - Executive Commission on China

Personal Details

CECC Record Number 2005-00199      Ethnic Group Han

Detention DET                                 Sex M

Issue Category civil/assoc/rol/spch    Age at Detention 40

Main Name Xu Zhiyong                     Religion Protestant

Chinese Characters 孠⽿㯠                  Occupation Law Professor

Affiliation Beijing Univ. of Posts 

Residence Prov. Beijing Shi Muni         Urb area (Prefecture)

Residence Country                             Haidian District

Imprisonment or Detention Details

Date of Detention                              2013/07/16

Current Prison                                   Liulin Prison

Sentence Length (Years)                     4

                                                      Tianjin Shi (prov.)

Prefecture Where                              Tianjin Shi Cty. (pref.)

Imprisoned (or Detained)

County Where Imprisoned                  Ninghe Cty

 (or Detained)

Legal Process

Legal Process chg/tri-close/sent-close

Trial Court Beijing No.1 Intermediate People's Court

Sentence Court Beijing No.1 Intermediate People's Court

Appeal Court Beijing High People's Court

Appeal Ruling Court Beijing High People's Court

Charge Statute CL97-art291

Formal Arrest Date 2013/08/22

Trial Date 2014/01/22

Sentence Date 2014/01/26

Appeal Date 2014/02/03

Appeal Ruling Date 2014/04/11



                              Teng Biao Yu Jiang and Xu Zhiyong

« Le Parti communiste chinois est confronté à une série de crises »
L’avocat chinois Teng Biao, contraint à l’exil, dénonce la mise en place d’une « dictature personnelle » autour du président Xi Jinping.

Le Monde.fr | 16.03.2016 | Propos recueillis par Harold Thibault

L'avocat Teng Biao au Congrès américain (Washington), le 18 Septembre, 2015, peu avant la visite du président chinois Xi Jinping aux États-Unis.

Figure de la lutte pour le respect des droits fondamentaux en Chine, Teng Biao a défendu entre autres des victimes d’expropriations illégales, des activistes mobilisés contre le sida, des membres du mouvement spirituel Falun Gong et des dissidents tibétains. Il s’est engagé contre la peine de mort. Il a reçu en 2007 le Prix des Droits de l’homme de la République française. Pour son engagement, il a été détenu à trois reprises, torturé, et s’est vu retirer sa licence.


Ses confrères subissent une campagne de répression d’une ampleur inédite dans la Chine d’après les évènements de Tiananmen. Le secrétaire du Parti communiste et président, Xi Jinping, ne laisse aucune place à la critique et à la société civile. Depuis que ses confrères, Pu Zhiqiang et Xu Zhiyong, respectivement avocat et activiste du mouvement de vigie citoyenne ont été arrêtés, Teng Biao présume qu’il le serait à son tour s’il rentrait en Chine. Actuellement en résidence de recherche à Harvard et New York University, il était de passage à Paris, mercredi 16 mars, et critique la campagne de répression menée contre les avocats chinois depuis juillet dernier.

En savoir plus sur http://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2016/03/16/le-parti-communiste-chinois-est-confronte-a-une-serie-de-crises_4884087_3210.html#A8eRbmhse1dpF04C.99




Xu Zhiyong, l'avocat tranquille qui demande des comptes à Pékin

Tom Mitchell, FT - Le procès de Xu Zhiyong, militant chinois des droits du citoyen, constitue un test pour Pékin et sa volonté de réformes

Ce mercredi matin, la réputation à l’étranger de Monsieur Xu a connu la même envolée. Son procès constitue un test pour jauger la détermination du Parti Communiste Chinois à promulguer des réformes audacieuses, dont sa promesse de protéger les droits des citoyens en “respectant la constitution et les lois”. Comme les militants américains des droits civiques des années 50 et 60, Monsieur Xu exige que la loi soit respectée telle qu’écrite et qu’elle s’applique de façon égale à tous les citoyens. C’est un rêve qui, s’il se réalise, changerait la Chine en profondeur.

Dans les jours suivant la comparution de M. Xu au tribunal, trois autres personnes associées au Nouveau Mouvement des Citoyens ont été arrêtés, et quatre autres procès vont avoir lieu cette semaine. Leur campagne pour la publication du patrimoine des fonctionnaires du gouvernement a été particulièrement mal reçue en haut lieu, après une série de reportages de médias étrangers révélant les richesses accumulées par certaines des familles chinoises les plus puissantes en politique. Il n’en faut pas beaucoup pour que le parti traite de telles enquêtes, tout comme l’intérêt des médias étrangers pour le Nouveau Mouvement des citoyens, comme un “complot international”.

Le Global Times, un média d’Etat chinois à la ligne dure, a averti les magistrats qui traitent le dossier de M. Xu de prendre garde aux “ingérences de l’Occident”. Mais c’est son objectif à long terme, défini globalement comme le “constitutionalisme”, qui rend son mouvement si dangereux aux yeux de l’establishment chinois. Brièvement, il affirme que la Constitution chinoise, c’est tout simplement ce qui y est écrit.

Que les droits civiques qui y sont inscrits, dont “la liberté d’expression, la liberté de la presse, de rassemblement, d’association, de manifestation” sont inaliénables. “J’appelle chacun à être un citoyen, un citoyen actif qui exerce ses droits civiques garantis par la constitution, et remplit les devoirs civiques d’un citoyen, qui promeut l’égalité devant l’éducation…et qui appelle à la publication.




                            The Advancement of Rights

Xu Zhiyong ( 许志永) may be best known for his foundation in May 2012 of the New Citizens' Movement (新公民运动). However, the founding of the NCM may be regarded as June 2010. This corresponded with the Open Letter called The Citizens' Pledge regarding civil rights' awareness. One of the key components of the pledge was "Equal Rights for Education". One specific campaign was to abolish the hukou restriction in gaokao (college admission exam) for migrants' children in large cities.

Scholarism (學民思潮)in Hong Kong developed independently from the New Citizens' movement on the mainland. It defended the autonomy of Hong Kong's education policy from Beijing's influence. It then participated in the Umbrella Movement (雨傘運動).

Ironically, one thing that both the New Citizens' Movement and Scholarism had in common was educational policy. While certain individuals in both groups were prominent one might say that both groups were leaderless. However, they differed in the maturity of their members. The NCM was composed of an assortment of older and more mature scholars, lawyers, journalists and activists. Scholarism was composed of younger secondary students. This meant that the NCM in terms of educational policy was an inclusive movement. They wanted peasants to have an equal opportunity with the wealthy. Scholarism can be defined as being exclusive or independent of the mainland's educational system.

There is another difference in thought though in evolution of the two movements with regard to education. Generally speaking, members of the NCM had completed their education and had begun their careers. As a result, they were oriented to practical ways to meet their goals. On the other hand, demonstrations interrupted the education of the participants of Scholarism to pursue higher education. They were successful in forcing the government to retract indoctrination through moral and national education.To be summarily succinct, NCM sought "for" something to be enacted while Scholarism fought "against" something to be redacted; namely, inclusion and exclusion respectively. This meant that the defining trait of Scholarism was reactive while NCM was constructive.

However, the antecedent and precedent of the NCM with respect to Xu Zhiyong was his legal defence of the two Suns; namely Sun Zhigang and Sun Dawu. The former was a graduate of Wuhan University of Science and Technology. He went to Guangzhou to work for Daji Garment Company. He had been detained after being unable to produce his temporary living permit (暫住証) and his identity card when he was stopped by the police. He had not applied for the former and had forgotten the later in Wuhan. Within three days of his arrest he was savagely beaten by police and died. As a result, it was argued by the defence team on his behalf that the C&R law for migrant workers was unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated citizens' rights articles of the Constitution.

Xu Zhiyong was also part of the legal team that defended the private businessman Sun Dawu. This was another case that made international headlines. Sun was accused of establishing an illegal credit co-operative at the village of Langwuzhuang, Hebei. To paraphrase Sun, though, there is no legal means to raise funds. However, corporate executives among whom were his brothers were also arrested and the whole business was shut down. The author also was put under house arrest for three days beginning May 28, 2003. He was establishing a college at the site during the SARS crisis.

The Sun Zhigang and Sun Dawu incidents marked the beginning of the civil right's movement in China. There were two achievements of the movement. The first was The Open Constitution Initiative (公盟) which spoke up for rule of law and constitutionalism. The most lasting achievement was the establishment of China's first Private Entrepreneurial Constitutional System in 2004 by the Dawu Group. All workers are potential leaders whose responsibilities are to manage the business. It provides free elections every two years. Everyone must vote.

D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi