D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi


                                         Sun Dawu's Motto

"Wish breeze blow away the untimely rain, let the timely rain water the Republic Year of the human world".


                                     Sun Dawu : Philsopher 孙大午: 哲学家

SUN Dawu 孙大午, President of the Board of Directors of Hebei Dawu Group of companies. He was born at Lang Wu Zhuang Village, Gaolin town, Xushui County, Hebei Province in June, 1954. In 1963, he attended school in Gaolin town. During the years 1971-1978, he undertook military service at Lin Fen, Shanxi province. Then, during the period 1979-1989, he worked at the China Agriculture Bank in Xushui. In 1989, he built Hebei Dawu Agriculture and Husbandry Co. He was self-educated during the years 1978-1982 in language and literature to the level of college graduate. He continued his self-education between 1984-1986 through a correspondence college degree program offered by Hebei University of Politics and Law. In June 1996, he was awarded the Champion of Raising Poultry of Hebei province. At this time, he was elected as representative for the People of Baoding city, Hebei Province. In August 1996, he was elected as Lee Chair of Baoding Poultry and Egg Industry United Farm Society. On September 20th, 1996, he was awarded the Title of Baoding Pioneer Individual World Health Organization (WHO) Donors' Fund for School and Education. In the year 2001, he became the master of Dawu School. In October 2002, SUN Dawu was appointed as Senior researcher at the Institute of Peasant Problems, China Agriculture University.




The Confucian philosopher SUN Dawu 孙大午 has risen from the village of Langwuzhuang, Hebei, China. Sun Dawu is a man of principle and conscience whose goal is to serve mankind through the application of pragmatic philosophy. He is an embodiment of civilization itself which emerged from an agrarian culture along the Yellow, Indus, Nile and Euphrates river valleys. The village and Sun are changing, building and achieving. He intends to improve the social system through educational training, health care, and job creation. This is the story of Sun.

Perhaps there is no better way to understand a foreign country and its people than through the everyday routine of a job. I have worked in the People's Republic of China as a teacher and foreign expert from Canada for six years. During this time, I have taught doctoral students at the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. I do not pretend to describe all of China nor every Chinese, but rather to depict a particular village called Langwuzhuang and a special person whose name is Sun Dawu. His Chinese name is 孙大午.

The man named Sun is a pragmatic philosopher in the Confucian school of true value virtue. Confucians believe "in the fundamental goodness of man, supporting rule by moral persuasion according to the concept of li. In other words, Confucianism as a social philosophy is mainly concerned with ren or compassion for others which can be achieved by those who understand thoroughly rules of propriety and ritual forms.

This Confucian entrepreneur or theoretical farmer advocates the transformation of an agricultural based society into a cultural community; as well as the expansion of the service sector economy and establishment of ecosystem services.

I agreed to start a college in Hebei Province at the request of a Distinguished Scholar of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The emphasis of the college would be on the 3 R's (reading, writing and arithmetic. The new institution was to be established at a small village called Langwuzhuang, Xushui County, Hebei Province. The village is located 48 kilometers south-west of Beijing. Currently, there is a private middle school on the property which boasts a student population of over 2200 and a teaching staff of 200. It may be noted that three-quarters of the students come from other provinces.

The educator wished to give the students an affordable quality education at a higher institute of learning by building a college on the property. The educator's name is SUN Dawu who was already known nationwide because his young students are versed in ancient Tang and Song poetry and Confucian morality. We had met Sun at a conference of scholars who were interested in Confucian principles.

In early December 2002, I flew into Beijing on a domestic airline. We then drove to Xu Shui from Beijing. A thick fog blanketed the landscape. At the toll gate, we were redirected to a secondary road because of a serious accident. It was a Chinese philosopher who proverbially said "May you live in interesting times". I am not sure if he meant that as a blessing or bane. I might it express it poetically as follows:

This is that which lives
That were this which left.

We turned onto a country road bustling with agricultural commerce and three wheel vehicles. This is the three kilometer road built by Sun to provide access to his school and business. In order to gain the right-of-way, he pays the farmers a yearly sum and also gives them usage of the road at no cost; in other words, there is no toll gate. This demonstrates his fairness and facility to act cooperatively with his fellow farmers.

We arrived somewhere in the middle of nowhere within the Middle Kingdom. What I mean is that there is nothing for the eye to fix on until one reaches the Dawu site. Then one sees an amazing sight. A middle school complex, a farming community and thriving agricultural business arises from the land. How on earth did this get here? It was through the effort, enterprise and ingenuity of Sun and thousands of employees. The fog cleared and the sun rose

"Confucius said that true knowledge consists in knowing that we know what we do know, and that we do not know what we do not know. False knowledge consists in thinking that we know what we do not know and that we do not know what we do know."

On Life, Chapter XII, Leo Tolstoy


spent ten years in the military where he became a leader of men and master of machinery. Then, ten years were spent in the Department of Agriculture where he became an agricultural and banking expert. Then, when reaching middle age, the business was launched on only 10,000 yuan or the equivalent of $2000 Canadian. It is now a multi-million dollar vertically integrated enterprise.

If one can judge character by appearance then it may be concluded that Sun is supremely serene. One has the overall impression of a dignified country gentleman without pretense. A sense of calmness and quietude pervades his face. His eyelids appear half-open or half-closed as if they were simultaneously open to truth and closed to untruth. His sweater is a familiar favorite which is worn thread-bare at the elbows. It covers a slightly portly belly which suggests a contentedness with self and affable disposition towards others. Finally, one senses that his physical motions are economical in nature so that his energy can be channeled into mental and spiritual endeavors.

I recall my first visit to the Dawu Group as I sit on a bench at the Confucian temple built during the Yuan Dynasty (1302 A.D.) in the nation's capital. Its most precious relics are eight stone drums of the Zhou Dynasty (827-782 B.C) inscribed with four-letter poems. In the main hall there is a shrine for holding memorial ceremonies to ancestors of Confucius. It is rather sad to see the temple in a gross state of neglect and disrepair.

In contrast, the Dawu Group is alive with growth and prospects of continued prosperity. A statue of a rearing white stallion greeted me at the entrance. Next, I am dazzled by a mosaic rooster as I read the lines of a couplet "As the rooster announces the arrival of the dawn, a chick strikes open the shell of a chaotic universe". Finally, I see real animals---thousands of roosters, hens and chicks. Do you think a chick is cuddly? You'll find 60,000 cuddlesome chicks per day on this farm.

Sun's enterprise is both a manufacturing and farming operation. Sun Dawu is the Chairman of the company. It has six branches: namely, Dawu Forge Co. Ltd., Dawu Hatchery Co. Ltd., Dawu Provision Co. Ltd., Dawu Electronic and Electric Co. Ltd., Dawu Grape Development Co. Ltd., and Dawu Middle School ( Senior, Junior and Primary).

In classical Chinese tradition, the "Dawu" meant the final dance. This dance symbolized the sixth or last of a series of dynasties. The dance dealt with a realistic subject. According to Confucius who saw it performed, the Dawu was a dance of perfect beauty.

The processing and manufacturing side of the business is impressive. There were several factories processing wheat and corn into animal feed. There was a production line filled with hatchery machines which were destined for the national and international markets.

However, Sun also wanted to see other farmers successful, too. He advised them on how to enter the business and duplicate his success. And he was successful. He established the 344th largest private enterprise in China. Sun is 365. Do I mean the number of solar days or the 365th wealtiest person in the People's Republic of China according to Forbes?

The middle school's buildings rise up in their own quarter. There are many more buildings than I had imagined. As I walked from older buildings to newer ones, I saw the construction lessons learned and applied.

The cafeterias were fascinating. There were ten different types of kitchens to suit the various ethnic tastes of a diverse student population. In other words, more than lip service was paid to the rights of minorities. The older students were privileged to sit at table and chair. However, the younger students stood while they ate at a large circular table. There were 1000 young students in the giant hall which also doubled as a cinema.

What was a typical study day for the studious? Wake up at 5:45 a.m. for a ten minute exercise (one of several exercise periods between classes). Then, there is an hour of class before breakfast. There are eight more hours of class punctuated by rest and meal times. Next, one and a half hours of supervised homework in the classroom. One half hour is allowed to prepare for bed. Sleep time was at 10 p.m. The teaching program runs seven days a week. This is one of the most impressive learning schedules implemented with quality education that I have ever seen whether one compares it to Chinese or international schools. This type of program and school is a strategic necessity for the countryside and country.

The garden was a haven or heaven for anyone who wished to visit---peasant, farmer, student or teacher. It began with a fountained goldfish pond whose sole amphibian resident was a bullfrog. Vines and willows were recently planted to relieve the eye and ear.

Then one proceeded along a winding track which was fronted and flanked by canals whose banks were overgrown with a degree of luxuriant foliage which had reached that harmonious state between growth and decay. One might say that the beech was popular and the poplar was beached. The waters reflecting the verdure were still and tranquil.

An ornamental Chinese pavilion graced the landscape. It was dedicated to Sun's wife. The shrine had an aura of a life of love.

At the end of the path were two swimming pools. The waters were unquiet as students splashed, plunged and jumped. They forgot temporarily their aspirations to be child ren (person/people) and again became children.

In harmony with the environment there is a Confucian museum. It is home to a bronze casting of Confucius who was one of the greatest philosophers; as well as other luminaries from the distant past. It is a place of peace.

An enchanting song wafted by the wind we heard. It was the school anthem written by Sun. Its lyrics are as follows:

Tomorrow's Sun Will Rise From Here

Oh, salute the national flag
in the early morning dawn!

Know to study and forge ahead
as this is the way to awareness.

There is a path of hard work
to climb the mountain of books.

The vast seas of knowledge are
better crossed with sound boat.

Seek knowledge, pursue truth
and understand reality's nature.

We have our vigour and
we've our willpower to win.

For your self-respect and
the honour of Dawu School,

Overcome all difficulties through
clear thought and decisive action.

Oh Dawu School!
The brilliance of yesterday continues today.
The sun of Dawu's dawn will come from here.
The sun of tomorrow will rise from here.


Oh, salute the school flag
in the auroral rural dawn!

Accept challenge and recognize opportunity
as here lays a solid foundation.

All comers go forthrightly
to all corners of the country.

Today's success or failure is decided on strength:

Tomorrow's win or defeat
is determined by eternal values.

Seek goodness, justice
and realistic truth.

For your self respect and
the honour of Dawu School,

Overcome all difficulties through
clear thought and decisive action.

Oh Dawu Students!
The brilliance of yesterday continues today.
The sun of Dawu's dawn will come from here.
The sun of tomorrow will rise from here.

The school anthem as written by the Master SUN Dawu 柾寄怜
(copyright 2003)

It helps me to recollect the essence of Sun's philosophy through sit still meditation in a Chinese pavilion at the Temple of the Earth. Basically, he wished to transform his agricultural enterprise into a cultural concern as he, too, underwent the metamorphosis from farmer to philosopher. The process had begun with the establishment of a middle school several years ago. It promulgated virtues similar to those supported by the 4-H program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to help young people become productive citizens; namely improve the head, heart, hands and health.

He conceived of the idea of extending his school into a college which would provide vocational training for young people by empowering them to get jobs in the service sector. The area of specialization was tourism and hotel management. A cooperative program would be established in conjunction with various national hotels. Its foundation was a partnership with a Canadian college which would provide professionals with knowledge, resources and skills in these specialized sectors. The program would be broadened through linkage with three universities in Beijing, a university in Sydney, Australia, a college in Japan, four middle schools in other provinces and a four star hotel.

These international cooperative endeavours would ensure a broad cultural exchange in a new field called cultour or culture and tourism. It would initially bring Canadian teachers on a rotating basis to the global village college. Canadian students enrolled in the training program could also receive credit for their overseas hands-on-training at the college's existing hotel and other Chinese hotels. Finally, Chinese teachers might be afforded the chance to teach ESL (English as a Second Language) to Chinese and other foreign students in a newly opened program at the Canadian college.

The Canadian delegation consisting of the Dean of the College and Director of Trades and Industrial Training visited China in early February. We met them at the Beijing Toronto Hotel. It was our plan to take them to the Dawu Group on the next day. However, Sun was so enthused about their arrival that he came to Beijing and booked an hotel room next door in order to meet them earlier and personally escort them to his private school. There are few private, middle schools in China.

The students, teachers and staff met all the expectations of the Canadian officials. The Canadians were duly impressed by the character and nature of our students. Our students were poor; nevertheless they were highly motivated and dedicated to hard work and perseverance. We met orphans, too, whom Sun had taken under his care.

Initially, Sun was going to allow the new college to gain access to one-half of his building. Then, he decided to dedicate the entire building to the institute. Finally, he privately told me of his dream to build an entirely new college on another site. And this man's dreams become reality!

We concluded the day by signing a contract with the Canadian college to start a new program in hotel management. In addition, we agreed to set up a nanny training course to qualify young people for a job in the fastest growing sector in the economy as supervisors of the children of wealthy Chinese families. In a reciprocal visit to Canada, Sun and I were to discuss our desire to build a dormitory/hotel on the Canadian campus; as well as establish a department of oriental medicine.

"The safety of the whole depends upon

the mutual protection of every part." 

Sir William Blackstone

A tide of mass hysteria gripped Beijing in April 2003. This particular hysteria was caused by SARS and fuelled by disinformation. Vegetable and fruit prices rose 100% based on speculation that Beijing would be cordoned off. The prices of vinegar, disinfectant and medicine rose considerably. Many rumors exaggerated the direness of the situation. For example, I heard that airplanes would be used to spray disinfectant over the city.

Beijing became a ghost town when the inflowing tide of people escaped to the safety of their barred doors and windows. People were afraid to talk with neighbours either in person or even over the telephone. They seemed almost to think that the virus could be spread over the telephone lines. Each apartment, business and store walled itself up against the world---imprisoning their inhabitants and restricting outsiders.

I took the subway to the museum. The train was virtually empty. When someone coughed, people moved ten feet away. Sitting across from me was a young woman in a mask. She was constantly rubbing her hands in palpable fear. At the museum, a clerk sat behind a panel of glass. She wore an N95 mask and surgical gloves. She picked up my entrance fare with tweezers. Then she disinfected the money with a spray.

It was necessary to return to the Dawu school after the international worker's holiday as I needed to make preparations for the new college. Canadian officials from the embassy had inspected our Middle School. They found a satisfactory situation.

Ironically, I met Sun most often on the track and field as opposed to the office or boardroom. It was here that I learned more about the man. It was our habit to exercise at 5:45 am each day. He would visit the track with his wife and they would jog several laps. He would listen to the Voice of America on his radio for the latest news.

Sun showed some interest in my training program. He said that it was very different. He asked me what it was called and I replied kick boxing. He told me that my high punches were not efficient. I replied that I was preparing to meet a taller opponent, but he countered that elbows would be more effective. Then he showed me his kata or set routine.

Sun pointed to an empty field beyond the wall. That is where I will build the college. This declaration surprised me. Up until this point,he had only wanted to utilize one of the existing buildings. Now he wanted to erect a new complex which would be independent in every way from the Middle School.

At an off-hour office meeting, I proposed to Sun that we hire an Australian colleague at the middle school on a temporary basis. His response told me much about the man and his highest priority. He said that it was necessary to legally keep the middle school and college separate in terms of staff as they were different legal entities. He did not wish to break the law because he believed that the law was paramount. I agreed with him, but countered that the teacher could legally be employed at the middle school while the higher grade students would be practically identical with those who would later enroll in the college. He replied that respect for the law was our primary concern in both actuality and appearance.

Professor Frank A. Kretschmer showed an interest in developing a textbook. Prof. Kretschmer had completed several textbooks on behalf of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, prepared entrance examinations, advised doctoral candidates on their dissertations and taught writing theory and practice for some fifteen years in the People's Republic of China. He accepted the challenge of devising a course textbook specializing in English for tourism and culture for the proposed college.

Sun asked me to write an article for the student newspaper. He did not dictate its content nor make any suggestions as to what I was to write; in other words I was free to express my opinion. I concentrated on three areas; namely, respect for elders, the importance of hard work and the nature of change. With respect to elders, I advised students to respect their leaders who serve them. It was a student's duty to pay attention to parents and listen to teachers. Finally, it was his/her duty to respect himself/herself through self-knowledge; afterall he/she will be an elder to someone, too.

I extolled the importance of diligence by referring to the activities of the Chinese bee and Canadian beaver. The bee visits over 1000 flowers in a single day. Its reward is food and our reward is honey. The beaver is busy building his house which provides it with shelter and shows us the necessary skills to dam rivers.

Finally, I wrote that everything that we see or perceive is subject to change. For example, instruments indicate that the continents move by several inches every year. However,there exist virtues that do not change: beauty,goodness,justice and truth.

In one lecture, I was trying to convey the concept of question and answer with regard to family names. I would ask the students "What is your family name? The answer was "My family name is SUN". It inspired me to write a poem at the Dawu School. It is called The Question Mark. Sun asked to read it. I have dedicated it to SUN Dawu.

This will mark the first publication of any of my poems. It may be difficult for a western reader to appreciate the fact that it is illegal to publish avant-garde poetry in unofficial magazines or books within China and impossible in official media. The Public Security Bureau (PSB but not PBS) may not look benignly at an unsanctioned literary composition of free-form
which is characterized by the freedom of poetry and the structure of philosophy.

"We know the good, we apprehend it clearly, but we can't bring it to achievement. To persevere, trusting in what he hopes he has, is courage in a man." Euripides, Hippolytus

Sun and I toured his agricultural business. It was clear to me that the tour served three purposes: inform me of his business interests, inspect his operation and entertain his two year old nephew. He was successful in all areas.

In terms of his business, I saw vast field of wheat, many "mu" of grape and a thriving hatchery business. I thought of the founding of Alexandria and asked him how long it would take to walk around the perimeter? His answer was a full day. On this day, he was particularly concerned about his grape business. He talked with the workers about the harvest, the pruning of vines and the spraying program. He showed keen interest in his new variety of California grape. Vines were pointed out that he had personally planted several years ago. All the time, he doted on his nephew. He carried him in his strong arms, helped him to reach a grape leaf and played stick-sword games. Then, he took him to see his nephew's favourite animal--a cow.

Sun's philosophy is composed of principles for guidance in practical affairs, so to some extent it resembles the common sense philosophy of Benjamin Franklin. The name Franklin actually derives from the Middle English word "frankeleyn" meaning freeman. A freeman was assertive of his rights as a member of an independent middle class. (Benjamin Franklin--An American Life, Walter Isaacson, Thorndike Press, Waterville, Maine, 2003, p.15)

The wisest American formed a club of mutual improvement to discuss and debate Moral, Philosophical and Public Service issues. Sun attended Confucian philosophical conferences in the capital while welcoming scholars to the village. Franklin ran his successful printing busines on the basis of industry and temperance. Sun has built an agricultural enterprise on the same principles.

There are other remarkable resemblances between these two men. Franklin began Philadelphia's first public library while Sun is completing a seven story library in a remote village. In 1751, Franklin acted in the service of man by supporting the establishment of a public hospital as Sun opened a new hospital in 2003. The philosopher Franklin was self-educated, yet founded a school; while the theorist Sun founded his middle school and planned a college after educating himself. Finally, Franklin wrote articles in the Almanac and newspapers while Sun has published articles in both print and electronic form as means to educate, inform and influence.

The legendary phoenix-philosopher Sun has arisen out of the fire's ashes after multiples of 500 years in the village of Langwuzhuang, county of Xu Shui and country of China. It is the same phoenix heralded by the occidental poets and a myriad of oriental poets. "A hungry phoenix does not scurry to pick up grains of millet; it eats but small pieces of jade". (A Hungry Phoenix, Li Pai). Its brilliance symbolizes the rebirth of a way of life whose aim is to promote intellectual, religious and spiritual values rather than crass mass materialism. "Goodness canont be obtained until what is difficult has been duly done." (Confucius, The Analects, 6-20).

At 3:00 a.m. on the 27th of May, I was awakened by a row. It took place directly across from my hotel room on the fourth floor of a student dormitory. Someone yelled in Chinese "Sit down!" I saw lights turned on and off in various rooms. I followed flashlights as they went from room to room. Then all was quiet until I heard the soft breathing a a policeman beneath my window.

At the break of dawn, I went for my regular exercise. However, Sun did not appear that morning. When I returned to my room, I found a short note left on my desk. It told me to immediately prepare to leave for Beijing. This was strange since I wasn't slated to leave for another two weeks. Later, an employee came to my room. He asked me if I had heard the police siren last night. A whirlwind of police had swept the village. He informed me that Sun had been arrested. In a surprising move, he asked for the return of his note. I said that I had thrown it away. He retrieved the note from the garbage and tore it into pieces. Then he ordered me to pack my things.

I asked him why was Sun arrested? He told me that Sun had strange ideas. I replied "Strange ideas?". He clarified his remark by saying that Sun's ideas were "advanced". I asked how anyone could be arrested for advanced ideas? He replied that it was better to know nothing.

An half hour later, the employee returned to my room. He told me now to unpack all my bags. I was not to appear to be leaving. In fact, I was under house arrest for an unknown reason.

The situation was exceedingly serious. It was obvious that my arrest was connected in some way to the arrest of Sun. He was in terrible, unutterable trouble over his advanced ideas.

I was told that my meals would be brought to my room. Did I want anything special? I replied no salt, no MSG and no garlic. In other words, I wanted nothing to eat. My meal was brought to me at supper time. I refused it. It was explained to me by telephone that I must accept the food; so I allowed the food to be placed on my desk. I ate nothing for two days.

I was also informed me that the Xu Shui police would conduct an interview. I was told that I had been arrested for staying at a hotel and not reporting my presence within 10 days to a police station. I told him that I wished to speak to the Canadian Embassy. At no point in my detention was I allowed to speak to the Canadian Embassy.

I had never seen police at the Langwuzhuan village, so to be interviewed by police here was an extraordinary event. In fact, there had been no need for police at this village. There had been next to no crime.

Communication was chaotic. The internet connection was cut on my personal computer. I was asked by the government official if I had spoken to anyone outside before the denial of service. On the previous day, they had reconfigured the computer in the teacher's room along with changed passwords. A fax message had been thrown out the window to two bystanders. I was neither allowed to speak with the Canadian Embassy personnel nor contact a lawyer.

The next morning the atmosphere was surreal. There was no exercise program in the courtyard. The music was somber as if a death dirge. The announcer spoke in hushed tones. All was calm. Too calm. I don't know that if a butterfly flaps its wings there will be a hurricane on Mars, but it seemed to me that events here were leading to something. That something was a horrific storm.

As I looked out the window that morning, an unusual phenomenon was transpiring. The sky was an ominous curtain of dark gray while the courtyard which held hundreds of children was bathed in the light of the sun. A storm was approaching. The dark curtain moved closer, but the children were oblivious to the sinister looking sky because their view was obstructed by the building, they were immersed in the sunshine and they were occupied with play. I was unable to warn them of the curtain because I was incarcerated in my hotel room.

In a matter of minutes, the courtyard darkened. Day turned into night. Gale force winds raced through the confined area. A sandstorm blew. Many children raced to the buildings with hands to their eyes. Others were disoriented by the blast of the sand as they stood motionless. Some children were still on the outdoor phones talking with their parents who were thousands of miles away. I could not shout a warning to the children over the tumultuous roar.

I heard a pelting on the window. At first, I didn't know what it was, but then I realized that it wasn't sand, but hail this time. They were large sized hail pellets. However, there were children returning to the courtyard to retrieve their laundry which was lashed and lifted away by the wind. They were hit on the head by the hail. Yet they persisted in collecting together their few clothes which were all these peasant children owned. The merciless hail drove them inside. The children on the phones were cowering under the cowls of the phone stations. They retreated to their dormitories through a torrential rain. And through all of this I stood helpless to assist.

In summary, Sun wants to establish an ideal city-state which will serve as a model for the rest of China. It is founded upon practical Confucian principles which have formed the basis of Chinese society for thousands of years. His goal is to transform a rural community based on agriculture to a civilized city-state (based upon culture) which has Chinese and international characteristics. Specifically,he wishes to improve the quality of life for farmers and peasants by job creation.

Sun has "demanded greater freedom for farmers to speak out and organize in an effort to protect and develop their economic interests". (Agence France-Presse) However, while under arrest, he is held under the strictest constraints of silence. It is Sun's golden silence that instructs us now without words as the sun shines seemingly without sound. One can say of Sun that "Stainless trust doesn't rust".

The terms "up" and "down" have a fixed meaning in nature. For example, up is the direction of a plant's shoot and down is the direction of its root based on gravity. In human affairs, up and down are positioned relatively since what is up today may be down tomorrow and vice versa. A philosopher might develop that the "p" which is the last letter of the word "up" actually points downward, while it might be punctuated that the "d" which is the first letter of the word "down" points upward; in other words, the first rifts in the clouds will end conciliation and the last salt of the earth shall render cooperation. Let the last words seen be those of Sun.

Hold fast to dreams

For if dreams die

Life is a broken-winged bird

That cannot fly.

Hold fast to dreams

For when dreams go

Life is a barren field

Frozen with snow.

Guzheng instrument - Liu Yang River


USA Visa Application







第一次想去美国是2008年。 那一年我去澳门大学讲学。澳门大学的教授、美籍华人朋友程惕洁邀我去美国看看。他邀了美国驻香港办事处的负责人会了面,让我回大陆后,可随一个商务旅行团 去美国走一走。回来以后,我带夫人及随行人员一同去美国驻华大使馆面签,排了两三个小时的队,终于排到面签窗口,没想到一分钟不到,我就被拒签了。记得当 时的签证官是一位女士,她问我“你有没有存款?”我说“有。”“有没有带存款证明来?”我说“没有,但我带了企业的资产证明”。下来对方就不再问话,我们 就被拒签了。我想拿出有关我的报道和书籍让她看一看,但她摆手让我走开,让后面的人过来。在我后面排着的,有四五个人是我的团队,我说“那我后面的人也不 会再签了”。签证官反问“你有什么权力不让后面的人签?”我说“我有权力。我都签不过,他们即便签过了,又有什么意义?”我从签证窗口走开以后,我的团队 都随我退出了。

2012年, 我弟弟孙二午和大午集团的高层领导去美国考察回来,建议我去美国看一看,为第三代接班人将来留学和投资做些考察。我动了念头,就和夫人商量带着亲家和孙 子,组团去美国旅游。助理在北京找了一家数一数二的旅行社,并按照旅行社的要求充分地准备了材料,比如银行的存款证明,集团总公司的注册证明、在职证明, 房产证、车本、结婚证、户口本、护照、去日本、欧洲等地旅游的照片等等。

2014122日早晨七点多,我们从河北省徐水县驱车出发,11点到达北京美国驻华大使馆,在寒风中排了两个多小时的队,经过层层关卡: 进入领事馆、过安检、领号牌、提交资料、留取指纹。在这之后,我终于排到10 签证窗口,进行所谓的面签。签证大厅屋子很小,挤了太多的人。按我的想像:面签应该是面谈。没想到是很小的窗口,申请人排队站在外面,签证官坐在里面。这 样的环境,使我感觉我是监牢里的罪犯,隔着一个小窗户,人就像囚在拥挤的笼子里,小窗口就是审讯的警官,让人感觉很受侮辱。据我观察,排在我前面的人,每 个人的平均面签时间不超过两分钟,绝大多数人准备的资料动也没动。

们夫妇俩到了小窗口,签证官也是一位女士,她问:“你们去美国干什么?”我说“去旅游。”“准备逗留多长时间?”“十五天左右”。她翻了翻我的护照问“你 有没有出过国?”我回答去过欧洲、日本、东南亚等国家。“在美国有亲戚朋友吗?”“没有”。她又问我“来过这里没有。”我说“没有。”“你2008年申请过签证吗?”我一愣,快速回答:“申请过,被拒签了。”“那你为什么刚才不说来过?”签证官带着责备的口气!

实际上,我印象中2008 签证的那个大厅比这个大厅要大些。我忙解释说“我记得不是这个大厅”。现在回想,在这个问题的回答的确有些误解。然后她就敲打键盘,说:“你不符合我们的 要求,看看这个材料。”然后递给我一个拒签说明单。我说:“你能不能看看我的材料?我是一个有着三千名工人的企业主。”对方摆摆手:“你回去看看材料 吧。”时间大约是两分钟,我夫人一句话也没说,我们俩个人加在一起也就两三分钟,面签就结束了。


美国,我确实是没亲戚,但还是有几个朋友的。如美国驻华大使馆一等秘书董云裳、二等秘书邵明康、时政助理冯黛梅等,他们都来大午集团访问过,而且对我是了 解的,只是近几年没有联系,而且我也想作为一个普通人去签证、旅游,没想过疏通关系走后门。此外,《纽约时报》、《华盛顿邮报》的记者近年对大午集团也有 报道,我很自信,凭我准备的材料,怎么也得看一眼,哪怕他随便看一眼,也不会这样没有一点礼貌地拒人于千里之外。比如我带了《谁是当代的思想家》(前驻美 大使吴建民主编),这本书和我并列的就有六个大企业家,柳传志、王石都在其中。遗憾的是签证官不屑于看这些材料,而给我的拒签理由,文字答复却是“您没有 提供能使您在旅行结束之后不得不回国的证明”!你们究竟想要我提供什么证明?“移民倾向”跟我不沾边,我的资产全在中国。难道我在中国拥有这麽大企业,这 么多资产,还不能作为我必须回国的证明?简直匪夷所思!而且还说什么“这次的拒签不可以上诉”,口气跟最高法院的终审判决一样。(附后)

在我去面签之前,有人说奥巴马来华参加APEC 议之后,签证政策放宽了。但我这次的感觉完全不是这个样子,好像是更收紧了,而且美国大使馆的签证官好像是在随机地完成数量任务一样,没有任何理性和感 性,甚至不了解中国。每天有多少人面签通过,有多少人面签被拒,这个数字恐怕只有他们自己知道。按我的观察,前去签证的人恐怕只有十之二三被通过。



我两次签证排队,两次看到中国那么多人在美国驻华大使馆前排起长长的队伍,像蚂蚁蠕动着,每天没完没了,心里很不是滋味。我更哀叹,来自数千里之外边缘省份的那些排队的人们,他们来一次北京签证,起码要花费两三天的代价,没有5000 钱的支出,是到不了签证官面前那一两分钟的,这是多么可怜的事情!这么寒冷的冬天,中午饿着肚子,在使馆外面顶风排队两个多小时,签证收费那么多,你们为 什么不能改善一下面签的环境?这还是在北京,不知道上海、成都、广州、沈阳其余四地的签证环境又会是怎么样的?面签感觉真有点“弱国贱民,自取其辱” 的味道!可是美国又有很大的吸引力,我的很多朋友都移民美国了,甚至很多我们企业家的孩子都在美国上学。我们企业的高管们也想把孩子送到美国或者英国去,也很愿意让我在英、美买一些农场给他们创业。

的两次拒签经历,并没有什么尴尬的,因为我本身就是以一个普通人心态出现的。但我又在想,即使李克强、柳传志这些政经界的大佬,若以普通人的身份,到美国 驻华大使馆排队面签,未必不是碰运气。当一个制度没有执行标准,没有规范的操作程序,在位之人必定会随心所欲的擅权,不会有其他!因此我给美国政府和美国 大使馆提三点建议:

一、交1000 的面签费,至少要保证五分钟的面谈,并且至少要看申请人提供的三样证明材料,才可以下结论。这是申请者的权利,而不是签证官的权利。同时建议美国政府大气 一点,少收或不收签证费。或者面签通不过,给予退款以示安慰。毕竟去美国的人,绝大多数都会有不菲的消费,对美国是有好处的。



大午集团创业三十年了。十年前,我首创的企业治理模式——大午集团私企君主立宪制,就有美国民主法治的影子。2011年, 大午案例入选加拿大毅伟商学院案例库。前些日子,清华一位学者还说下一步要把大午案例写进哈佛商学院案例库。我本人对美国的企业家宣言和企业家精神,更是 非常认可。大午集团的高层从美国考察回来说“大午就像个小美国!”国内外的朋友说我是“美国最欢迎的人,如果拒签是他们的损失!”我接连遭拒,朋友们感到 很吃惊和不解,我自己也同样困惑。

国是一个伟大的国家,是一个人们向往的地方。在它伟大的同时,也必然存在着一些不足和缺陷。因为人们对美国趋之若鹜,所以之于寻常国家,它会出现更苛刻的 签证制度。但我要说:美国大使馆面签程序绝对是世界上最霸道甚至邪恶的。因为美国的法治精神是很合理公正的,而在中国人的面签制度上却体现不出一点美国的 法治精神。美国的法治精神是无罪推定,可是面签程序上完全是有罪推定的:把每一个中国排队面签的人,都视为有移民倾向的人。而且实施以居高临下的审问方 式,不论你们承认不承认,事实构成了对一个民族的歧视,对中国人的歧视!





"Sun Dawu hoped that his employees could consume in Dawu City instead of saving their money in banks.  Therefore, people could turn individual wealth into community wealth shared by every member"

W. Glenn Rowe and Laura Guerrero, Cases in Leadership, Third Edition, Ivey Publishing, Western University, London, Ontario: 2013, p.477

"Sun also studied carefully the "Constitutional Monarchy" in the United Kingdom, the "Separation of Powers" in the United States, and the "Central Government System of Three Councils and Six Boards" in the Sun Dynasty in ancient China".

K. Praveen Parboteeah and John B. Cullen, Business Ethics, p. 294

Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics

The key to getting the China story right is to recognize the existence of two Chinas -– an entrepreneurial rural China and a state-controlled urban China.

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi

Cambridge University Press
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA

Evolution of capitalism in China is a function of a political balance between two Chinas - the entrepreneurial, market-driven rural China vis-à-vis the state-led urban China. In the 1980s, rural China gained the upper hand but in the 1990s, urban China gained the upper hand. Although China made notable progress in the 1990s in terms of FDI liberalization and reforms of SOEs, this book assigns greater weight to the rural developments in determining the overall character and the pace of China's transition to capitalism.

Many economists rely on GDP data to formulate their view of Chinese economy. The tale of the two decades is not reflected in the GDP data but is reflected in the household income data (obtained through surveys). Rural household income grew substantially faster in the liberal 1980s than in the illiberal 1990s. Also social performance deteriorated in the 1990s as well.

© Yasheng Huang 2008


Individualisation and Politics in China: The Political Identity and Agency of Private Business People

Authors: Delman, Jørgen; Yin, Xiaoqing

Source:   European Journal of East Asian Studies, Volume 7, Number 1, 2008 , pp. 39-73(35)

Publisher: Brill

Bottom of Form


It is argued that informal political agency is part of the political dynamics of the nexus and that it develops through critical tension between private business people and the autocratic party-state. This is illustrated through the case of Sun Dawu, a Hebei businessman turned political activist.


Family Enterprise in the Asia Pacific: Exploring Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Firms

Kevin Au, Justin B. Craig, K. Ramachandran, Elgar Publishing, Northampton, Massachusettes, 2011, page 62.

Case Study Four, The Sun Family (Dawu Group): Passiong the Helm to the Wise, Bing Ren, Bin Yang, Ya Lit

The family enterprise adopted a unique corporate citizenship culture. In the Dawu enterprise people were encouraged to have a kind and gentle disposition and refined manners, to believe in justice and truth and to act with humanity and reason.  Sun insists that power and money only embody wealth, not the value of life; instead, the value of life exits in effort, knowledge and devotion.  Sun believes that the people who dare to take responsibility are the real bosses.

Sun Dawu 2014-09-16 17:22

I feel very good about traditional Chinese culture, but this is not only about how the traditional culture is reflected in Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and will never exist only in schools and books, more traditional culture should be reflected in the home, family, clan, and ancestral heritage.  A man without culture is not terrible, terrible is uneducated. Culture can be derived from the schools, from books, but education must come from the family, from the family environment.

 孙大午 2014-09-16 17:21 于 北京 通过网站

 我 感觉中华传统文化非常好,但这种传统文化绝不仅仅体现在儒释道,也决不仅仅存在于学校和书本,更多的传统文化应该体现在家庭、家族、宗族、宗祠传承上。一 个人没有文化并不可怕,没有教养才是可怕的。文化可以来源于学校,来源于书本,但教养一定来源于家庭,来源于家族环境。

Business Ethics

By K. Praveen Parboteeah, John B. Cullen, Routledge: New York, 2013, page 294

The core concept of Sun Dawu’s “Family Business Constitution” was separating the rights of ownership, decision-making and operations thus creating a stable system in which the three powers could co-exist while checking and balancing each other at the same time. The constitution was the foundation of the system and was placed at the top of the “Family Business Constitution” hierarchy.

China's "peaceful Rise" in the 21st Century: Domestic and International Conditions
Edited by Sujian Guo, Ashgate Publishing: Burlington,VT, 2006, page 125.

Hebei Dawu Group: Building the First Family Business Constitution in China

Sun Dawu is a peasant turned entrepreneur who criticizes government policies that discriminate against peasants and rural industries.  When his criticism became too harsh the government detained him.  This aroused a big wave of appeals and petitions from university students, professors, journalists and public intellectuals challenging the basis of his detainment. Eventually the government had to water down its case and find a face-saving excuse to issue a relatively light punishment on Sun.

China’s laws also contain extremely stringent rules on private enterprises. This popular saying vividly illustrates the problem: “[If you want to] find fault with an enterprise and it doesn’t evade taxes, check if it’s operating illegally. If it’s not operating illegally, check its registered capital. If its registration isn’t fake, check if it has illegally resold land. No matter what, there are nearly a hundred accusations that can be used against enterprises in China today!”

Beyond these, other common charges include “illegal deposit taking” levied against Sun Dawu, the owner of Hebei Dawu Farming and Stock Breeding Group, several years ago, and “fraudulent fund raising” directed against the self-made Wenzhou billionaire Wu Ying last year. Because the boundaries for these charges are ambiguous, they can easily be used to crush private company owners.


October 15, 2012  China Economic Review  Yang Junfung



Map of Dawu Village and Langwuzhuang Village


Dawu Village and its village counterpart, Langwuzhuang, are found three and a half miles northwest of Xushui Railway Station, Xushui, Hebei Province. Most workers live in the village. Most students and teachers live in the city.

It would be well to get a bird’s eye view of city and village.  There are at least five ways to do so. One can use Google Maps Canada (ca) or Google Maps (cn). The search term for Google Canada is Xushui, Hebei, Baoding. The Chinese search terms in active links for Google China are as follows:

徐水大午医院,  河北省保定市徐水