D.卡尔顿 罗西
D. Carlton Rossi

大尊天空的狮头人像




            The Elegant Celestial Giza Series
                      (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014-2017)

The Elegant Celestial Giza Series (D. Carlton copyright 2014) consists of forty poetic I’mages  (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014). They are divided into three sections; namely, celestial pyramids, sphinx and sacred animals.  These image poems show the stars of the Big and Little Dippers of the North Circumpolar Region as they pivot around the polestar Thuban in the year 3000 B.C.E.  Similar projected images provided a celestial blueprint for the Sphinx and pyramids.


“Astonishingly, these stars that are identified in both the early (Tang period) and later (10th century through the Ming period, 1368–1644) stellar charts as Taiyi and Tianyi are 11 Draconis/Thuban and its dimmer mate 10 Draconis, are none other than those that sat at the pole during the 3rd millennium BC.”

John C. Didier, “In and Outside the Square,” Sino-Platonic Papers, 192, vol. 1 (September, 2009)









                       



  大尊天空的狮头人像    (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014)
 
 The Extremely Honourable Sphinx (D. Carlton Rossi  copyright 2014)
 Ta4 Tsun1 (Wade-Giles) Tian1 Kong1 de Shi1 Tou2 Ren2   Xiang4
 

This particular I'mage  (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) is one of the

five directional Sphinx in the series ie. including the centre.  It belongs

to The Elegant Celestial Giza Series (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014).

It is the largest of the sphinx.
  


The term  大尊 天空的 狮头人像  (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) may be translated as The Extremely Honourable Celestial Sphinx.  One of the stars called (大尊  or  Psi Ursae Majoris of the Great Bear Constellation is located on the far left.  Allen interpreted 大尊 to mean “extremely honorable” by using the Wade-Gilles system.  It was formerly one of the Royals in a Chinese constellation called Wuanyuan or Yellow Emperor.  大尊  points directly to the Alpha star called Regulus which is at the heart of the modern constellation called Leo.  

Richard Hinckley Allen, : Ursa Major, Dover Publications, University of Chicago: 1899.
 

 
Leo has been re-examined by the poet and redrawn in several dimensions  to include multiple characteristics in Poem 27 which is also known as Neo Leo (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014).  It appears as both a male and female lion, a full length cobra, a pharoah and a Sphinx of crystalline formation. 



 

Neo Leo   copyright    D. Carlton Rossi   2014

Banpo poetry series






                                  



罗希文: 优雅的天体金字塔        D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2015

Chinese

Luo Xiwen:  The Elegant Celestial Pyramids





With respect to the I’mage called 罗希文: 优雅的天体金字 it is conjectured that the heights of Khufu and Khafre are set by the distance between Draconis 11 and 10 as perceived from Giza in 3000 B.C.E.  However, the height of Menkaura is determined by the Yilden line toward the binary pole stars which intersects the Pherkad (double star) line which projects to Merak of the Big Dipper. 






                                


                                 Himmelsk nestede pyramidene     


                                               Norwegian

                                 The Nested Celestial Pyramids      




In terms of the I’mage called Himmelsk Nestede Pyramidene it is also believed that the distance between Draconis 11 and 10 set the heights of the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre.  In addition, two lines can be projected along the top of the NCP rectangle from this binary system to the binary system called Mizar-Alcor of the Big Dipper. This was the first known binary system in ancient times.  It is actually a quadruple system of two binary stars.  Alcor is called Foo Sing by the Chinese. The height of the smallest pyramid called Menkaura is set by the star called Megrez (Kwan Tien Kuen).  The right side is formed by projecting a line in the direction of the star called Yildun of the Little Dipper. The left side runs from Megrez to Merak (Tien Seuen). The base points from Merak to Pherkad (Ta Tsze) of the Little Dipper.  Its length is determined both by the Megrez line to the deck of the solar boat and also by an imaginary straight line running down from Draconis 11 and 10.



                        
                                      

             
Super Moon over Canada on September 27-28, 2015



The significance of the 8th Total Lunar Eclipse

The significance of the 8th Total Lunar Eclipse of the set of Tetrads involving the years 2003-2004 and 2014-2015 is becoming more evident.  On September 27-28, 2015 there was a Super Moon. The moon was at its perigree.   Therefore, it was 14% larger and 30% brighter than an ordinary Moon. 

There were significant human events that related to that time period.  Most notably were the visits to America of the President of the People’s Republic of China whose name is President Xi Jinping.  The President visited Seattle, Washington and New York.  In New York, he gave a speech to the General Assembly at its 70th opening session.

In Washington, President Obama welcomed two significant world leaders; namely, President Xi Jinping and Pope Francis who is more popularly known as Papa Francisco.  In New York, President Obama who represents the host of the UN and is President of the United States gave a comprehensive speech to representatives of about 200 countries. 

There was the extraordinary visit of Pope Francis to three American cities.  In Washington, ceremonies were held on the back lawn of the White House for about 15,000 people.  In New York, he visited the site of the fountain honoring those who lost their lives in the fall of the World Trade Center and held Mass.  Finally, in Philadelphia or the City of Brotherly Love and Sisterly Affection, he celebrated a Mass to Masses to over 1,000,000. 
                         

The Total Lunar Eclipse on September 27-28 as seen from Canada.


On the author’s website there was posted a short tract entitled The Year of the Two Suns.  It looked at the year of 2OO3 or the beginning of the first Tetrad of Total Lunar Eclipses.  It reiterated the view of the civil rights’ activist and defender, Dr. Xu Zhiyong, that 2OO3 marked the beginning of the civil rights’ movement in the People’s Republic of China.  There were two sons of China who were crucial to its inception;   namely, Sun Zhigang (孙志刚) and Sun Dawu (孙大午).

On September 14, 2015 a road near Dawu Village was blocked bandits. The Dawu Group reacted by petitioning the Xushui government for free movement. Then, a peaceful demonstration and march was organized on September 24, 2015 by 1000 villagers. It was not opposed by either police or authorities. 




                                                                                                                
                                        The Moon of Sun

The moon is very beautiful, very bright, very lonely! The stars are gone?

月亮很美,很亮,也很孤独!星星去了哪里

Sun Dawu September 28 2015


The Total Lunar Eclipse coincided with the birthday of an important philosopher and teacher.  It was the birthday of Confucius who is known in China by the name of Kongzi.  Last year, at this time, there was an important state recognition of Confucius at his hometown which the author observed.   

For the poet, this date represented the beginning of a new poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery through the synthesis of 山上山 and 山过山 in an analysis called Poetic Analytics of Imagery through Stream of Consciousness and Unconsciousness. 

Despite the importance of all these events there was something that eclipsed them all in the heavens. It began with the Total Lunar Eclipse at the time of a Super Moon. The Moon turned a copperish-reddish color.  It was reflecting sunrises and sunsets all over the world.  While this spectacular event was transpiring the author noticed the red planet Mars which was basically facing it.  It was rather ordinary and no match for the bright Venus the night before. 

However, the color of the Moon at the moment of the Total Lunar Eclipse was coinciding with the red color of the planet Mars.  It was a harbinger of a momentous event in human history. This was the discovery of water on the planet Mars. The discovery of water is not so important to determine whether or not there was life on Mars. The discovery of water is not so important to determine whether or not there is life on Mars.  However, the discovery of water by NASA is important because it will mean that Mars is a habitable planet.  It may help to preserve the human race and life on this planet which is reaching a tipping point in terms of climate change. 

 

                             

                              NASA image of water on Mars
                              Credits: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


D. Carlton Rossi

September 28, 2015




                       The Qilin and Kongzi



“Master Sun, what is virtue?”


“Virtue is the headspring of eudaemonia and pleasure because the person is social and virtue is a social norm”. 孙大午, September 20, 2006, Xushui County, Hebei






                                                               





The mystical Qilin
麒麟 was a celestial animal representing the west quadrant in Chinese mythology. Later, it appeared on rare occasions –particularly at the time of a solar eclipse-- in order to announce the birth or death of a sage or emperor. In China, it was second only to the dragon in its power. “The Qilin was believed to have sprung from the centre of the earth and was the first and most perfect of the 360 land creatures”. (1) This mystical animal gave gift of the art of writing from the time of Fu Hsi to the time of Kongzi. It was closely associated with Kongzi  孔子 since it manifested itself to his mother who carried him in her womb and to the sage himself.

Fu Hsi 伏羲 was the first of the five emperors during the golden age of antiquity. It was this emperor that saw a Yellow dragon-horse. “A native commentary on one of the Classsics, written in the second century BCE describes the dragon-horse as the vital spirit of heaven and earth fused together.” (2) The dragon-horse may have been a kind of Qilin or even a tortoise that emerged from the Luo He which is a tributary of the Huang He. This was around the year 2852 BCE. In that year, there was an eclipse of the sun on April 23rd according to modern retrocalculations. (3)

On the animal’s coat, Fu Hsi saw markings. The emperor perceived those symbols as a written language. (4) According to legend, this was the origin of Chinese calligraphy. Tradition though mainly credits Fu Hsi with the discovery of the trigrams and invention of knotted cord records which led to written script.

Mythology also attributes the invention of the Qin (lyre) to Fu Hsi who wished to harmonize mind-heart with the universe. By the late Zhou period it played an important role in ritual music. Its seven strings were tuned to the five pitches of the natural pentatonic scale.

In the year 2697 BCE, there was a solar eclipse. This may be the oldest preserved account of a solar eclipse. A Qilin was spotted in the hall of Huangdi 皇帝 (Yellow Emperor) at this time. Qilins were seen in the park during the 20th year of the emperor. Legend says that a Qilin took the emperor to the land of the dead. (5)

The Yellow Divine Ancestor was credited with the invention of the calendar in the 61st year of his reign. The first historical record of the 60 day cycle began on March 8, 2637 BCE. This year was designated as year one of the Chinese calendar. The calendar was based on precise astronomical observations of the longitude of the sun and phases of the moon.

It was said that a partial eclipse of the sun heralded the forthcoming birth of Kongzi. The sage was born on the 20th day after the eclipse of the sun. This took place in the 10th month of 552 BCE, or the 27th of the 8th moon as worked out today. (6) The Julian date based on Oppolzer’s system was August 20th, 551. There was also an earlier eclipse in the 9th month of 552. It is no wonder that two azure dragons came from the sky to his mother’s house on the night when Confucius was born. (7)

Kongzi himself recorded thirty-seven eclipses of the sun between 720 and 481 in the Chun Qiu 春秋. The eclipses of 709, 601 and 549 were total. Of course, he primarily recorded eclipses as seen from his own vassal state of Lu in Shandong Province (lat. 35” 40’N, 117 E).

Apparently, another rarity in terms of astronomical phenomenon coincided roughly with the birth of Kongzi. This was a coming into conjunction of the major planets. "This had happenened previously at the founding of the Xia Dynasty. While the five century interval between Confucius and the Duke of Zhou was noted it was not not normally linked to the motion of the planets, perhaps because Confucius’ invention of philosophy provided a substitute for literal representation of the movements of the heavenly bodies”. (8)

There were several conjunctions of major planets “wandering stars” in the years 552 and 551 BCE according to Dr. John Harper at Wychwood Observatory. In March 552, there was a conjunction of Mars and Jupiter. In February of 551, Jupiter was in conjunction with Venus rather near to the sun. Finally, in June 551, there was a conjunction between Mars and Jupiter west of the sun and visible in the morning sky. (9) Conjunctions involving the planet Jupiter may have been important to the ancestors of the Zhou and possibly to the Xia and Shang before them. (10) Of course, the moon would align on a monthly basis with each planet throughout this period of time.

Han astronomy asserted that the ultimate conjunction took place at time zero. This was before the cycle of Heaven, Earth and Man were set in motion. It involved the five planets, Sun and Moon. (11)

It was Kongzi who revised the Shu Ching 書 經 which the Chinese consider their most ancient of books. In paragraphs 3 to 8 of the first section, the Emperor Yao gives instructions to his astronomers, under the designations of He and Ho. These instructions are probably the earliest relating to astronomy on record in China. For example, the emperor directs them to receive the rising Sun with due respect. (12)

One of the classics of the Ru Jia “School of the Learned” is the Lun Yu : 論語 or 论语 or The Analects. In a famous quotation, Kongzi said that “One who rules through the power of virtue 德 might be compared to the Pole Star, which simply remains in its place while receiving the homage of the myriad lesser stars. (13)
(第一章) 子曰、為政以德、譬如北辰、居其所、而眾星共之。

According to Edward Kaplan, “Kongzi began the process of turning “de” 德 into a metaphor. In his hands de came to be used in the sense of “virtue” as we now use that term—meaning moral goodness—but without losing just yet its magical power”. (14)

It is appropriate here to consult a modern Confucian philosopher regarding the definition of virtue 德. A question was posed to Sun Dawu 孙大午 who is Head Master of the Dawu High School in Xushui County, Hebei. “Master Sun, what is virtue?” “Virtue is the headspring of eudaemonia and pleasure because the person is social and virtue is a social norm”.

Ursa Major or the Great Bear 小熊座 is a circumpolar group of stars. One part of the configuration or seven stars is pictured as the tail of the Great Bear. The two stars known by the Chinese names of Twinkling Brilliance 搖光 and Assistant 輔 point to Polaris “Tsze-wei” or the North Star. This is the location of the Emperor’s Seat 帝座 .

The star constellation Beidou 北斗 is referred to on oracle bones as dou 斗. The 甲骨文字典 explains dou as "疑用為星名,即北斗,夕至翌日祭之.", probably the name of a star (constellation), namely Beidou, from the evening to the next day sacrifices are made to it”. (15)

The star called Lingxing 棂星 is found in the Great Bear constellation. According to legend, the star represents talent. When emperors offered sacrifices to heaven, the sacrifices were offered firstly to Lingxing 棂星. (16) They also offered sacrifices to Confucius. The fact that the southernmost gate at the Temple of Confucius is named Lingxing suggests that Confucius is a star from heaven. (17)

Kongzi also edited an official collection of poetry of the Zhou Dynasty that constitute the Shih Ching 詩經 (Book of Odes). Some of the 311 poems had astronomical themes or references. One poem begins with the following lines: “The Milky Way in Heaven shines on all brightly. The Weaving-Lady labors there, beside the River …”.

The Weaving- Lady (She-niu or Zhinu) is found in the constellation called Lyre 天琴座. She is the brightest star called Vega and the Chinese refer to as 織女. About 10,000 years from now, the earth’s North axis will point at Vega due to a motion called precession. (18)

A fabulous creature called a Qilin represents rui (serenity and prosperity). Its origin is described in the Huainanzi 淮南子
that was compiled around 140 BCE. Hairy Heifer gave birth to Responsive Dragon that gave birth to Establish Horse that gave birth to Qilin. (19)

There are four spiritual creatures known as Si Ling 四霛/四灵 in Chinese mythology. In the mist of pre-history, they are found in the four quadrants that represent directions and seasons. The four celestial animals are the Qing-long, Feng-huang, Ch’i-lin and Gui-xian. The Qing-long 青龍 or dragon (east) is a bringer of good fortune and symbol of the emperor’s power. The Feng-huang 鳳凰 or phoenix (south) is a propitious sign.. The Ch’i-lin
麒麟 (west) represents benevolence and harmony. The Gui-xian 玄武 or tortoise (north) symbolizes longevity and happiness.

It appears that the perception of the Qilin underwent a change over time, but it is difficult to trace the exact development. Originally, there may have been only three celestial emblems. The earliest bronze mirrors show the Qinglong, Feng-huang and Ch’i-lin on the reverse side. (20). The Qilin then may have joined a group of four that included the Qinglong 青龍,Feng-huang 鳳凰 and the Gui-xian 玄武. Finally, the Qilin may have spiritually harmonized the five elements represented by Qing-long 青龍 yellow dragon, Zhuque 朱雀 red sparrow, cauldron 鼎, Baihu 白虎 white tiger and Black tortoise 玄武 (some later mystical texts refer to the Xuan Wu 玄武 or Black Warrior).

The Qilin became associated with the number five. The Qilin radiated five colours. They correspond to the basic elements; namely, wood (green), fire (red), earth (yellow), metal (white) and water (black). The system of five elements (Wu Xing) and classifying things by five was already evident in the Tao Te Ching 老子道徳經 and the Shu Ching 書 經,

In astronomical terms, the colours are associated with the five planets. They are Jupiter “Soui-sing”, Mars “Ying-houo”, Saturn T'ien-sing” or Genie of the Pivot “Tchou-niou-tchi-chin”, Venus “Ying-sing” and Mercury “Chin-sing”. In the heavens, the colours also correspond to the heavenly dragon (east), phoenix (south), cauldron (centre), tiger (west) and tortoise (north).

There are also five different types of Qilin. Each has a correspondingly different color.
1. Jade
2. Fire
3. Golden (most popular)
4. White
5. Dark or Black

Indeed, the Qilin is a combination of five animals. It has the face of a dragon, the body of a deer, the mane of a lion, the tail of an ox and the hooves of a horse. In a sense, the Qilin symbolizes the harmonization of these disparate elements, colors and parts.

The spiral horn of the Qilin faces backwards. This indicates its peaceful intentions. Its horn may be a kind of fertility symbol because it represents the wish for a son. It is the male Qilin that has a horn. Its horn may also symbolize an eclipse of the sun because the horn is the same shape as the crescent of the sun. The gender of the Qilin is both male and female as indicated by the Chinese name
麒麟 which is a combination of the two characters chi (male) and lin (female).

The Qilin appears on special occasions to announce the imminent birth of a sage or ruler. It is believed that Confucius’ mother saw a Qilin. This was prior to the birth of her son. It presented a jade tablet to Ching-tsae that proclaimed all the great things that her son would accomplish. Furthermore, it declared that he would be a King without a throne.

One may easily dismiss the story about his mother's long gestation period as mere hyperbole. It was said that it lasted twice the normal time. However, a simple explanation may suffice to account for this belief.

The length of the gestation period roughly matches the Greater One-Horned Asian Rhinoceros. The gestation period of Rhinoceros unicornus lasts between 15-18 months. To some degree, the rhinoceros resembles the fabled unicorn with its horn. In fact, one of the five types of Chinese unicorns was called the liniu (hsi-niu) which is usually translated as "rhinoceros". The other four were named the Qilin, the Xie Chai, (often called the Xie Zhi), the Bai Ze (Pai Tsê), the Xie Niu and the Ki-Lin. (21)

Today, this rare rhinoceros is an endangered species. There may be only 2400 in existence. Its habitat may extend to southern China. Unscrupulous poachers shoot to kill this beautiful animal for its horn which is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The long human gestation period of Kongzi is not unique among the ancient Chinese. It is said not only that Lao Tze's gestation period was 81 years, but that he gave birth to himself and was born an old man. Does the number 81 suggest that he was 81 when he died and/or that it took 81 years to write his philosophy and/or that the length of the Tao Te Ching is 81 verses?

The facial appearance of Kongzi is singular. His face was homely; although a pleasant smile diverted attention from his looks. There were several warts on his cheeks. Furthermore, there was a large bump on his forehead. In a metaphorical sense, his looks may suggest that of a Qilin.

It is written in the Lun Yu
論語 that Tsze-chang asked Kongzi about perfect virtue. Kongzi replied as follows:

"To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness” (22)

The appearance of a Qilin may also announce the death of a ruler or sage. A dead Qilin was identified by Kongzi in his 70th year. He immediately recognized the creature and cried: "It is a Ch'i lin. The Ch'i lin, benevolent beast, appears and dies. My Tao is exhausted. (23)

As a magical master of naming, he also correctly identified the source of the giant bone of a dinosaur. The bone was uncovered by a landslide at Kuaiji. (24) Was the account of the naming of the Qilin inspired in part by the earlier discovery of this giant dinosaur bone and its identification?

After Kongzi had sighted the dead Qilin, he completed his compilation of the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Zhou Dynasty or Chun Qiu 春秋. However, it may be that he wrote a final poem on the theme of the Qilin.


In the age of Tang and Yu the Unicorn
and the Phoenix walked abroad.
Now when it is not their time they come
And what do they seek?
The Unicorn, the Unicorn, my heart is sad. (24)


在遥远的上古时候,
麒麟和凤凰飞走了,
现在不该他们来的时候他们却来了,
他们在寻找什么呢?
麒麟啊 ,麒麟啊,我的心很悲伤。


Kongzi lived for seventy-two years. He had seventy-two excellent students who mastered the six arts. It also so happens that the number 72 has astrological significance. "If the sun is watched on the vernal equinox every year for a period of 72 years, the Zodiacal sign that aligns with the rising Sun has shifted one degree". (25)

In order for the sign to complete a full circle, it would require 72 years times 360 (degrees) equals 25,920 years. This number represents the period of the luni-solar precession or what is known as the Great Year. Plato believed that the perfect harmonius number was 25,920.

It should be noted though that precession of the equinoxes was discovered in China at a later date. It is attributed to Yu Xi in 320 CE. He found a value of about 72 arc seconds per year or two times the value found by Hipparchus. (26) However, "astronomers as early as the Han era noted that the winter solstice shifted with respect to lunar lodges". (27) "Even then, though, they did not recognize it (precession) as a continuous phenomenon, and it was called an "annual difference". (28)

Music was one of the arts that Kongzi mastered. He played the seven string lyre called the ch'in while he compiled the Book of Odes. Also, his sixth classic was called The Classic of Music or 乐经­ Yue Jing. It was Kongzi's view that wholesome music was conducive to harmony within the individual and order within the state.

In the Li Ji 礼记 (Book of Rites), Kongzi expounded that each of the five notes of the pentatonic scale or C, D, E, G and A stood for a cosmic element. The five notes are Gong (Kong, Kung), Shang, Jiao, Zhi and Yu. They represent respectively the ruler, ministers, people, world affairs and 10,000 things. Harmony will prevail in the land if the notes are clear.

According to Kongzi, the physical structure of the Qin related to the cosmos to which it resonated. The top surface was rounded like the heavens. The underside was flat like the earth. The space was the emptiness of the Dao. The seven strings represented societal strata.
(29)

The ancient Chinese believed that the Primal Sound was called Kung or Huang Chung. While this sound is inaudible, it is present everywhere. The Kung corresponds to the western modern pitch of F. For the ancient Chinese, the alignment with the divine prime tone was the emperor's most important task". (30)

In Hans Cousto's The Cosmic Octave Tuning Forks , the author relates the Kung to the frequency of the Platonic Year. He calculates the note of F in Western Equal Temperament pitch which is found in the 48th octave with a frequency of 344.12 HZ. In the 47th octave it is 172.06 HZ. (31) In addition, Thomas Vaczy Hightower notes that the Chinese continued the cycle of fifths up to 25,524 notes with basic intervals of 0.0021174 savarts. This cycle is very near to that of the precession of the equinoxes or the Pythagorean great year, which is of 25,920 solar years. (32)

A bamboo rod tuned to the Kung was used by Ling Lun (who was a minister of Huangdi) to discover twelve tones that were made by taking two-thirds of each successive tone. In their 2:3 proportions as "fifths" the seven notes appear as F, C, G, D, A, E and B. (33) The twelve tones could be subdivided into 12 lesser Tones associated with the twelve Zodiacal regions.

According to Hightower, the introduction of the factor of five brings us to the harmonic modal scale. (34) He lists the intervals as the harmonic major sixth (5/3),the harmonic major third (5/4), the minor third (6/5), the major half tone (16/15), the minor half (25/24) and the syntonic comma. In this music expert's opinion, the number 5 harmonizes the music while the number 7 may transport it to heavenly regions. Is it any wonder that at Kongzi's birth music floated from heaven and five immortals descended sedately from the clouds?

It seems that Kongzi knew that his death was imminent. It is interesting to note that there were two eclipses recorded prior to his birth in the year 552 BCE and another eclipse in the year 481 (two years prior to his death at the age of 72). In both years, a Qilin was sighted. It was probably the same Qilin since they live for a thousand years. Or was it that his mother saw a male Qilin (sun) and Kongzi saw a dead female Qilin (moon) and metaphorically himself as the last sage?





FOOTNOTES


1. "Unicorn Legends: The Chinese Unicorn"

http://www.allaboutunicorns.com/legends.php


2. John Bruno Hare, Sacred Texts, Chapter Four, The Divine Spirit of the Waters, 2006

http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ddl/ddl106.htm


3. John Harper, "Ask John Harper", Wychwood Observatory September 6, 2006

 http://www.cyberwitch.com/wychwood/Observatory/askJohnHarper.asp?=1762


4. Andrew Bennett, "The Phoenix in Earliest Chinese History", Seminar at Okanagan Centre, Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, January 25, 2005
Source: The Chinese Classics, Part III, The Annals of the Bamboo Books, p.108.

http://sunnyokannagan.com/joshua/phoenicA.html

5. Ibid.,

6. Edward Harper Parker, Ancient China Simplified, Chapter V, Evidences of Eclipses,

http://www.authorama.com/ancient-china-simplified-6.html


7. The Divine Spirit of the Waters, Chapter Four

http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/ddl/ddl106.htm


8. Edward Kaplan, Confucius: The Last Sage and First Political Philosopher, Washington State University: 1989

http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~kaplan/H370/apll.pdf


9. John Harper, "Ask John Harper", Wychwood Observatory September 2, 2006

http://www.cyberwitch.com/wychwood/Observatory/askJohnHarper.asp?id=1738


10. Edward Kaplan, The Confucian Myth Cycle On the Formation of the Chinese State

http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~kaplan/H370/ap03.pdf


11. http://saturniancosmology.org/files/slujis/chinasat.txt


12. John Williams, Observations of Comets from B.C. 611 to AD 1640, Digital Library of India, extracted from the Chinese Annals, introduction ix, London: 1871.

http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/cgi-bin/advsearch_db_noregex.cgi?listStart=0&title1=O&perPage=20


13. Kongzi 孔子, Lun Yu, The Analects 2:1


14. Edward Kaplan, Confucius: The Last Sage and First Political Philosopher

 http://www,edu/~kaplan?H370/ap11.pdf


15.  Harmen Mesker, "The Shen Sacrifice at Qi Shan"

 http://www.i-tjingcentrum.nl/serendipity/archives/67-The-sheng-sacrifice-at-Qi-Shan.htm


16. http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_travel/2003-09/24/content_34594.htm


17.  Qufu

 http://www.answers.com/topic/qufu


18. Starry Skies, "Constellation Lyre"

 http://starryskies.com/articles/2004/07/lyra.html


19. Roel Sterckx, Animal Classification in Ancient China, EASTM23 (2005): 26-53, Di Xing, Huainanzi, translated in Major (1993), pp. 208-209.

 http://www.oriental.com.ac.uk/~rs10009/sterckx%20EASTM.pdf


20.  Derek Walters, Chinese Mythology: An Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend.
http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/ssu-ling.shtml


21.  Chinese Unicorns


 http://www.lair2000.net/Unicorn_Dreams/Types_of_Unicorns/Chinese/Chinese_Unicorn.html


22. Confucius, The Analects, Section Four, Part 16
 
http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.4.4.html


23. "Unicorn Legends: The Chinese Unicorn",

 http://www.allaboutunicorns.com/legends.php


24. Michael Nylan, Endnotes: The Five Confucian Classics, Chapter 6, The Spring and Summer Annals, p. 298, GY5:73 (Lun Yu B)

http://yalepress.yale.edu/upbooks/pdf//nylan6notes.pdf (p. 22 of 25)


25. "Unicorn Legends: The Chinese Unicorn"

http://www.allaboutunicorns.com/legends.php


26. Spiralling Evolution, Chapter 10

http://www.soulsofdistortion.nl/SODA_Chapter10.html


27. Observations, p.13

http:://arxiv.astro-ph/9902030v2 2 March/99

http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/9902/9902030.pdf


28. Other Ancient Astronomy,

http://filer.case.due/~sjrl6/advanced/pre20th_ancients_others.html


29. Chapteer 2, Three Streams, Two Approaches to Musuc. 

http://www.plu.edu/~youtzgl/essays/silk/CHCHAP2.doc


30. John B. Henderson, Cosmology and Concepts of Nature in Traditional China

http://ww.zmk.uni-feiburg.de/rheineintern/Henderson.htm


31, 32, 34. Thomas Vaczy Hightower, The Creation of Musical Scales, part II


http://vaczy.dk/htm/scales2.htm



Thomas Vaczy Hightower, The Tone Zodiac

http://home22.inet.tele.dk/hightower/the_tone_zodiac.htm


The Platonic Year of the Earth

http://planetware.de/octave/earthplato./html


33. Music-- A Divine Art
THEOSOPHY, Vol. 42, No. 4, February, 1954 (Pages 175-179)

http://www.wisdomworld.org/additional/ListOfCollatedArticles/Music-ADivineArt.html








“太阳之神啊,什么是美德呢?”

“美德是初春的eudamonia和欢乐,因为人是属于社会的,美德也是一种社会规范”——孙大午于2006,9,20在河北徐水




麒麟是一种天上的动物,在中国古代的传说里,它代表西方。后来它出现在一些罕见的场
所,尤其是当发生日食的时候——为了宣告一个圣人或者是皇帝的生死。在中国,麒麟的
影响力仅仅次于龙。“麒麟被认为是从地球的中心一跃而出并且是360种动物中最早也是
最完美的一种“在从伏曦到孔子的这段历史里,这种神奇的动物恩赐着文学创作
的天赋。当孔子还在他母亲的子宫里的时候,麒麟在他面前出现过,后来麒麟又在孔子的
面前出现过,就这样麒麟和孔子紧紧的联系在了一起。
在远古的黄金岁月里,伏曦是那五个帝王中的第一个,就是他看见了一匹黄色的龙马。
“在一部经典的著作里面有一份当地的实况记载,该著作写于公元前二世纪,描述了龙马
作为天地的灵魂融合在了一起。”这龙马也许就是一种麒麟或甚至是一种神龟,它曾
在黄河的支流洛河浮现过。碰巧的是这是在公元前2852年前后。经过现代的计算,在
那一年的四月23日发生了一次日食。
在这种动物的皮毛上伏曦曾看到了斑点,他感觉到这些符号可以作为书写的文字。根据
传说这就是中国象形文字的起源。-人们相信伏曦发现的符号,并且发明了结绳记数的方
法,通过坚持这一传统逐渐形成了今天书写的字母表。
传说中说是伏曦发明了琴,他想调谐宇宙的心智。到周朝末年的时候,琴在舞蹈音乐中扮演着重要的角色。后来琴的七根弦发出的音阶演变成了今天的音乐的五音阶音谱。
在公元前2697年,发生了一次日食,这是保存下来最早关于日食的记载。那时麒麟
的头像被放在皇帝所居住的大厅里,在接下来皇帝当政的第20个年头,麒麟在花园里
被发现了。传说是麒麟把皇帝带到了安息之地。
皇帝被认为是在他当政的第61年里发明了历法。第一个历史记载的以60天为一个循环开始于公元前3月8日,这一天被定名为中国历法的第一天。这个历法是建立在对太阳经度和月亮相位的精确的天文观测的基础之上的。
据说是一次日食预示着孔子的出生。在日食后的第20天孔子出生了。如今计算出来就是发生在公元前552年10月份或者是8月27日的事。而从另外一个历法 系统推算出来是公元前551年8月20日。在公元前552年9月早些的时侯也发生了一次日食。毫无疑问,在孔子出生的那天晚上,两条蓝色的龙从天空中来到 孔子母亲的房间里。
从公元前的720年到公元前的481年的这段春秋时代里孔子一共记录了37次日食。789,601,552年的是完整的记录。当然他所记录的日食仅仅是从 山东鲁国视角观察到的。(东经117,纬度35,40),显然,另一个罕见的天文现象几乎与孔子的诞生同时发生,那就是五大行星的会合。

这种会合以前在夏朝建立之初已经发生过,据孔子时代到周朝的记载,这与行星的运行并非具有正常的联系,可能是因为孔子的哲学理论为天体的字面描写提供了替代品

根据Dr. John Harper的Wychwood(无毛树木)的观察,在公元前552年和公元前551年有过几次五大行星的会合。公元前552年3月,火星和木星会合。公 元前551年2月,木星与离太阳更紧的金星回合。最后,公元前551年6月,在早晨可以看见火星与木星在太阳西部会合。



这些会合,包括木星,可能对周朝的祖先、夏商朝的祖先或者更早的祖先是重要的 。 当然,在此期间,月亮会在每月有规律地和每一个行星在一条直线上。


汉朝的天文学认为最后的会合发生在公元一世纪,也就是在天体、地球和人类形成运行圈以前,它包括了五大行星、太阳和月亮。

《书经》,由孔子修订,中国视之为最古老的书。在《书经》第一部分第3至8段中,尧帝任命天文学家为He和Ho,并做出了指示。这些指示恐怕是中国最早的关于天文学的,比如说,尧帝让他们以太阳为崇拜对象。

儒家有部经典《论语》被称为“博学者的殿堂”,有句非常著名的语录,子曰“为政以德,譬如北辰,居其所,而衆星共之。”

Edward Kaplan 认为,是孔子开始了将“德”转为象征的过程。是他,“德”在被用作“道德”之意时,不仅具有品行端正之意,而且没有失去它的魔力。
在这里我们就非常合适的的去请教一位儒家哲学大师什么是“德”的定义。一个问题被呈现给了孙大午——他是一个坐落在河北徐水县的大午高中校的校长“校长,什么是‘德’呢?”
“美德是初春的eudamonia和欢乐,因为人是属于社会的,美德也是一种社会规范”
小熊座是地极附近的群星。其中有七颗星组成了小熊的尾巴,有两颗星(也就是搖光和輔)指向北极星。这是帝王的方位。


北斗星座的含义是:圣人的骨头叫做“斗”。甲骨文字典解释“斗”为:疑用為星名,即北斗,夕至翌日祭之.。星座的名字之所以叫做“北斗”,或许是以 从晚上到第二天早上的祭品的名义来命名的。

在小熊座中有凌星。传说它代表智慧。当帝王祭天时,启明星或凌星辉出现在天空,帝王也会祭拜孔子。孔子庙的南门就叫做启明星或凌星,象征孔子是一颗来自天空的星。

同时,孔子也编辑了周朝官方诗集------诗经,其中311首诗是以天文学为主题或参考的。由首诗就是这样开头的:“ 乳白色的路在天上明亮的闪耀着。织女站在银河的旁边。“

天琴座有颗星叫织女,它是最闪亮的一颗星。中国人称之为织女星,距今约10,000年以前,地球的北轴由于岁差指向织女星。

传说中的麒麟象征着瑞(平和与繁荣)最早见于公元前140年前的《淮南子》。毛茸茸的小母牛赋予敏感的龙生命,敏感的龙赋予 神马 生命 , 神马 又赋予了麒麟生命。

中国神话中有四种神奇的生物称之为四灵。在前历史中,四灵被发现与指示方向和纪捷的四个象限仪中,他们是青龙、凤凰、麒麟、龟仙。东方的青龙是财富和帝王权利的使者,南方的凤凰是吉祥的象征,西方的麒麟是仁慈与和谐的象征,北方的玄武,也就是龟仙,象征着长久和幸福。

据发现,麒麟的出现带来了时代的改变,但是想要测出精确的动向是很难的。本来应该有3个星座符号,最早的青铜镜上有青龙、朱雀和其反面的麒麟。后来,麒麟就与青龙、凤凰、玄武齐名,最后,麒麟有五个部分:青龙、朱雀、鼎、白虎和玄武。

麒麟也与数字5联系起来,麒麟散发出五种颜色,分别对应于五行,即木(青)、火(红)、土(黄)、金(白)和水(黑),五行和以五分物早在老子《道德经》和《书经》中有记载
在天文学术语里,这些颜色是与木星 火星 土星 金星 和水星 五大行星联系在一起的。在天上,这些颜色也相当于龙(东),凤凰(南),鼎(中心),虎(西)和乌龟(北)。
按颜色来分,麒麟有五种不同类型:
●碧麒麟
●火麒麟
●金麒麟(最普遍)
●白麒麟
●黑麒麟
实际上,麒麟是5种动物的混合体,它有着龙脸,鹿身,狮毛,牛尾和马蹄。从某种意义上来说,麒麟象征着不同部分和 颜色的和谐化。
麒麟的螺旋形角面向后面以象征和平意图,它的角也可以说是一种繁殖的象征,因为它代表了求子的愿望,不过只有雄性麒麟才有一只角,由于它的角是日食形状,所以也象征了日食,麒麟的性别是雌雄共有的,它的中文名字“麒麟”是“麒”(雄性)和“麟”(雌性)的合称。
麒麟会在特殊的场合出现,而它的出现预示着一位圣人或统治者的诞生。传说中孔子的母亲生孔子前曾有麒麟现身。那时麒麟吐玉书于其家,上面写着孔子将会成就的所有事业,此外,它也预示孔子将会是一名没有君权的王。
一个人会很容易的误解为什么孔子的母亲会怀孕那么久,听说是正常人的两倍,或许一种简单的解释会支持这种观点。
她怀孕的时间长度和一种亚洲的独角犀牛大致一样。这种动物怀孕时间会持续15—-18个月左右。在某种程度上,这犀牛和传说中的带角麒麟很相似。实际上,这五种麒麟中的一种就叫做“犁牛“,经常也翻译成”犀牛“。另外四种分别叫做:麒麟,谢柴,白泽,谢牛。
如今,这种稀有的犀牛是一个濒临灭绝的动物。只有2400只还存在,他们的居住地会扩展到中国的南方。一些偷猎者仍然在射杀这种动物来取他们的角用着中药。
孔子这么长的妊娠期在古代中国并不是希奇的。据说老子的妊娠期是81年,但是他是自己生下了自己并且他一生下来就是81岁。难道这81意味着他是在81岁死的,或者是他花了81年去写他的哲学,或者意味着他的《道德经》是81篇?

孔子的外表是独一无二的,他的脸是亲切的,但是他那令人愉快的笑容总能分散人们对他的脸的主意力,在他的脸颊上有几个疣,而且,他的额头上有几个大肿块,也许他的外表是和麒麟的一样的。
《论语》中有这样一段:有一次,弟子子张向孔子请教仁,孔子说:“能够处处实行五种美德,就算是仁了。”子张接着问道:“请先生说出是哪五种美德。”孔子回答:“就是庄重,宽厚,诚实,勤敏,慈惠。
麒麟的外表也象征着一位圣人或统治者的死亡,在孔子70岁的时候,他发现了一只死了的动物,他马上认出了那就是麒麟,而后他哭泣道“那是麒麟,麒麟,是一种仁兽,出现了又死了,我的道也到尽头了!”
作为一个命名魔术师,他也发现了一块巨大的恐龙骨头的出处,那块骨头在一次 塌方中被发现。难道麒麟的名字是来自早期发现这块巨大恐龙骨头和对它的鉴定吗?
在孔子看见了死麒麟后,他完成了《春秋》的编辑,至少,是他写了以麒麟为主题的最后一首诗:
在遥远的上古时候,
麒麟河凤凰飞走了,
现在不该他们来的时候他们却来了,
他们在寻找什么呢?
麒麟啊,麒麟啊,我的心很悲伤


孔子生活了72年,他有72个优秀的学生掌握着6方面的艺术。碰巧的是72也有它的天文意义。“在每年春分的时候观察一下太阳,这样连续72年,你会发现黄道带内的象征太阳生起的艾利型抓岩机移动了1度。
为了完成一个整圆,它要求是72的365倍,也就是需要25920年。这个数字代表日月共同运动的周期——也就是所说的大年。柏拉图认为这和谐的数字是25920。
应该指出的是在晚些的时候中国人发现了春分点,这应该归功于生活在公元前320年的于西。他发现一个数值是72弧度每年或者是(144弧度每年被 一个骑士发现的)然而,“天文学家在汉朝就发现冬至要随着星宿而改变”“即使那样他们并没有意识到这是一个连续的过程,它仅仅被叫做是”年差“。
音乐是孔子所擅长的一种艺术,当他编辑诗歌的时候他会弹奏带有七根弦的琴。他的第六个名著是《乐经》。孔子的观点是整个音乐应该有利于和谐个人和整个国家的秩序。
在《礼记》里面,孔子解释说这五音阶的每一个符号C,D,E,G,A都代表宇宙的一个元素。这五个符号分别是Gong,Shang,Jiao,Zhi,Yu.它们分别代表统治者,宰相,人民,世界大事和10000种东西。正如这符号所示,和谐将在这片土地上出现。
孔子认为:麒麟的身体结构和宇宙之间有一种共鸣,它们之间有某种联系。它的顶部象天空一样圆,它的下身想地一样平坦,整个空间虚无缥缈。七根鲜代表七个社会阶层。
中国古人认为最初的声音叫做Huang Chun .但是这种声音是听不见的,而它又处处存在。这种声音相当于现在西方的F音调。对中国古人而言,与神圣的音调结盟是皇帝的最重要的任务。
在Hans Cousto的/The Cosmic Octave Tuning Forks/,作者把Huang Chung与柏拉图年的频率想联系起来了。作者计算了F音符在第48个八读音阶里的频率是344。12赫兹,在第47个八度音阶里是172。06赫兹。另 外,Thomas Vaczy Hightower指出中国人继续the cycle of fifths up to 25,524 notes with basic intervals of 0.0021174 savarts.。这个周期非常接近于Pythagorean大年的周期。
中国古代的一个宰相叫做Ling Lun用竹器发出了声音Kung,同时他发现了12音阶通过发出Kung里面的2/3的音阶。这个比例2/3作为七音节里面的第五个音阶(分别是:F, C, G, D, A, E, B)这12音节与黄道带联系起来可以分成更细化12音阶。
根据Hightower所言,5的引进把我们带到了一个新的模式标准。他例出了第六个大调的距离是5/3,第三个大调是5/4,第三个小调是6 /5,半大调是16/15,半小调是25/24以及共振音阶。根据这个音乐专家的观点,音阶5协调着音乐,而音阶7使它更加完美。难怪当孔子出生的时候, 音乐从天而降,五阶音乐从云层中倾泻到人间。


无论如何,孔子是指导他的死期将至了,令人感觉有趣的是在公元前552年他出世以前有一次日食,在公元前481年(孔子72岁逝世前两年)又第二 次日食。而在这两年里,一只麒麟出现了,也许是同一只麒麟,因为他们生活了一千年。难道是他母亲看见了一只雄麒麟(代表太阳),孔子看见了一只死麒麟(代 表月亮),就把自己看作最后的圣人吗?



D.  Carlton Rossi copyright 2006   



                                                                        
  
                                
Chinese Cosmology and Mythology


                                                                                                             
                                                                                                 
                                                          

                                                   D. Carlton Rossi  (copyright 2007)



1.Chinese View of the Constellations

Aquila

** Aquila Constellation: Chinese text around 500 B.C. identifies pattern of Aquila with the draught ox.

In Chinese myth, the herdsman Ch'ien Niu (the star Altair) is separated from his lover Chih Nu (the star Vega) by the Sun King or T'ien-tsin for their neglect of their duties. They are separated by the river (Milky Way). The princess is sorrowful and asks help of the birds (Aquila and Cygnus "swan"). In Chinese tradition, the magpies form a bridge with their wings over the river. It is also said that the magpies may have built the bridge out of small twigs they carried. The lovers are able to meet once a year on the seventh day of the seventh month. A third star or Deneb represents the "tai bai" fairy or the chaperone of the two lovers. The cowherd carries their two sons (the two stars on either side of Altair or Alshain and Tarazed) to reunite with their mother.

The Lovers Chih Nu and Ch'ien Niu
http://www.coldwater.k12.mi.us/lms/planetarium/myth/aquila.html


"Brilliant show the Draught Oxen, but they do not serve to draw our carts". The three bright stars were their Cowherd from whom the Magpie's Bridge gives access to the Spinning Damsel (Lyra) across the River of the Sky; the Milky Way. [SLM p.58].


古詩十九首 GUSHI SHIJIU SHOU (Nineteen Old Poems)


之十 ZHI SHI (no.10)

迢迢 颗P牵ê訚h女。

纖纖擢素手,札札弄機杼。

終日不成章,泣涕零如雨。

河漢清且淺,相去復几許。

盈盈一水間,脈脈不得語。



Poem #10:

Far away twinkles the Herd-boy star;
Brightly shines the Lady of the Han River.
Slender, slender she plies her white fingers;
Click, click goes the shuttle of her loom.

At the end of the day she has not finished her task;
Her bitter tears fall like streaming rain.
The Han River runs shallow and clear;
Set between them, how short a space!
But the river water will not let them pass,
Gazing at each other but never able to speak.



古詩十九首 GUSHI SHIJIU SHOU (Nineteen Old Poems)之十 ZHI SHI (no.10) SHI (no.10)

 

From 詩集 Shi Jing (Shih-ching), Book II,5.(203) ("The Book of Songs" ed. Waley,A.,1937.L.21954) hymns of the Zhou Dynasty, sixth to the third centuries B.C.E
http://www.advancedpoetx.com/ZHINUWEB/zh2005poetry.html



2.The Pleiades


The Pleiades marked the beginning of the rainy season. They could be found in the heart of the Chinese Dragon constellation.

"On the Frontier" by Li He.

In the still of autumn see the Pleiades.
Far out on the sands, danger in the furze.
North of their tents is surely the sky's end
Where the sound of the river streams beyond the border.

The mao2 tou2 refers to yak-tail, and also to a kind of ancient flag, decorated with yak tail at the top. However, mao2 tou2 (mao head) actually referred to the Pleiades. The modern Chinese name is mao3. As Graham points out, the flickering of the Pleiades was an omen of invasion by the northern barbarians.

http://www.cjvlang.com/Pfloyd/liho3.html




3. Confucius

He was born on the 20th day after the eclipse of the sun which took place in the 10th month of 552 B.C., or the 27th of the 8th moon as worked out to-day.
(for the year 2005 this means September 30 and for year 2006 it means Oct. 18)


8th month Osmanthumens (osmanthus month) 宩寧: osmanthus blossoms.

Ancient China Simplified, Edward Harper Parker, Chapter V, Evidence of Eclipses.
Confucius' birthday Confucius himself records thirty-seven eclipses of the sun between 720 and 481, those of 709, 601, and 549 being total. Of course, Confucius primarily recorded the eclipses as seen from his own vassal state of Lu in Shan Tung province (lat. 35” 40’ N., long, 117” E.).

Ancient China Simplified
Edward Harper Parker
http://www.authorama.com/ancient-china-simplified-6.html



4. Confucius Star

The architecture of the Temple of Confucius resembles that of the Forbidden City in many ways....
The first (southernmost) gate is named "Lingxing Gate" after a star in the Great Bear constellation, the name suggests that Confucius is a star from heaven.

 


5. Ignorance is the night of the mind, but a night without moon and star. (Confucius)


6. He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it. (Confucius, Analects)


7. "In about 12,000 years, the brightest star of the Constellation Lyre will become the North Star. A slight wobble in Earth's daily rotation causes our north pole to trace a circle among the stars every 26,000 years. This motion is called precession and it causes the pole to point at different stars over this 26,000 year period."



8. "The Polar Star is the Centre of Heaven. Shang-te's
throne is in Tsze-wei,that is, the Polar Star. Immediately over the central peak of Kwen-lun appears the Polar star, which is Shang-te's heavenly abode. In the central place the Polar star of Heaven, the one Bright One, the Great Monad, always dwells.

The Polar Star in Chinese Mythology
http://saturniancosmology.org/files/sluijs/chinasat.txt


9. Starry Skies, Constellation Lyre
 
http://starryskies.com/articles/2004/07/lyra.html

The parallelogram shaped Lyre may be seen in the map of the early autumn skies where it is positioned at a higher latitude, but between a line running through the Constellation Hercules and Aquila.

The Constellation Lyre

North Circumpolar Stars which include Hercules and Lyre



10. About 350 B.C., Shih Shen compiled a list of stars containing 122 constellations and 809 stars


11. In 352 B.C. Chinese observers report a supernova--the earliest recorded sighting.
This sighting may have inspired Shih Shen to create his star map.


12. The Early Chinese Constellations

http://www.starlab.com/slcylmythchilbig.jpg

Star Lab Planetarium

Refer to the The Chinese write the Book of Silk, which is the earliest known atlas of comets. The book is discovered in a tomb in 1973.


13. THE WOLF STAR -- SIRIUS

A. SIRIUS

The Chinese called Sirius by the name of 天狼星 (tiān láng xīng; tenrōsei) or literally the heavenly wolf star. They knew this place as the bridge between heaven and hell, the bridge of the gatherer, the judge. In the higher mind are gathered the results of the experiences of the personality. Between each life, the soul judges its past progress and the conditions needed to aid its future growth. As long as it is attached to desire, sensation, and needs experiences, it takes a body. The soul cannot pass over the "bridge" until it is perfected.

天狼星 is the brightest star in the Northern Hemisphere. It appears as a white star about 10 times brighter than our sun. It was described by Sima Qian in the Shih Chi-day Official Book written around 100 B.C. as "White than wolf".

Sirius Color of Ancient Chinese Records
 
written by Jiang Xiao Yuan, 1992


Sirius -- The Heavenly Wolf Star


B. SIRIUS AND THE PLANET VENUS

In the Soochow Astronomical Chart, an eight-centuries-old inscription in stone, in a section that deals with past irregularities in the heavens, there is the following statement: “Once T’ai-P’ai (Venus) suddenly ran into Lang Hsing (Wolf Star, Sirius), though it is more than 40 degrees south of the Yellow Road.”6 The Yellow Road is the ecliptic.7 The same ancient tradition was referred to by the early eighth-century A.D. Chinese astronomer Y-hang. As told by Gaubil,8 Y-hang wrote that “in the time of Tsin one saw the star Sirius eclipsed by the planet Venus. Y-hang, after having reported this alleged observation, assures that Sirius has 40 degrees south latitude, and that therefore Heaven changed the course of this planet in the time of Tsin.

As the Chinese astronomer correctly observed, the ancient records of Venus' movements cited by him would require the planet to travel outside of the ecliptic, on an orbit quite different from its present course. Whereas the Soochow Astronomical Chart might leave the impression of a one-time event, the more detailed records cited by Y-hang tell of a regular phenomenon. The brightest of the planets approaching the brightest of the fixed stars and merging its light with the heavenly wolf star, if that is the correct interpretation of the texts, must have been an impressive sight.

Venus and Sirius
http://www.interpres.cz/worag/cosmol/sothis.htm
Ancient Cosmologies, Jan Sammer


The ancient Chinese regarded the planet Venus as a male warrior, so Venus' occultation of Sirius would herald a time of strife. Venus is ten times brighter than any star and Sirius is the brightest star in the Northern Hemisphere. They must have been quite a brilliant pair as Venus approached Sirius.


C. SIRIUS B -- A WHITE DWARF STAR

A main-sequence star with this mass would have emitted a few times more light than Regulus in Leo, which a 2005 study found has 3.4 solar masses. If Sirius B shone so brightly today, it would look brighter than Venus or bright enough to cast shadows.

The Life and Times of Sirius B
 
Ken Croswell, July 27, 2005

Sirius B shone as a main-sequence star and then a red giant for 101 to 126 million years or the expected lifetime of a star born with about 5 solar masses.

Every 49.9 years, Sirius A and B, come as close together as their orbits allow, creating huge magnetic storms between them. As they approach each other, the stars both begin to spin faster as tidal forces become stronger, finally flip-flopping over, actually trading places with each other.

每隔49.9 年,天狼星 A 和B, 在它们的轨道允许的情况下尽可能亲密接触, 从而在它们之间造成巨大的磁性风暴。当它们互相接近时,随着潮汐力量的加强,两颗星星的转速不断加快, 最后突然翻转, 实际上相互交换位置。 中国人把Sirius 命名为天狼星。他们把这个地方作为天堂和地狱之间的桥梁, 召集人和法官之间的桥梁。在较高级的头脑里,汇集了个人的经验的结晶。在每一个生命之间, 灵魂会判断有助于他未来成长的过去的进步及境况。只要它和欲望, 灵感相结合并且需要体验, 就会形成肉体。一个人的灵魂无法通过这座"桥梁" ,除非他的灵魂达到了完善的程度。 天狼星是北半球最明亮的星。它看起来是一个白色的星球,大约比我们的太阳亮10倍。大约在公元前100年,司马迁在《史记•天宫书》中描述它“白比 狼” 。

14. The Ancient Chinese View of Eclipses

To the ancient Chinese, solar eclipses meant that dragons were devouring the sun.

Observing total solar eclipses was a major element of forecasting the future health and successes of the Emperor, and astrologers were left with the onerous task of trying to anticipate when these events might occur. Failure to get the prediction right since the pattern of total solar eclipses is erratic in any specific geographic location resulted in the beheading in 2300 B.C of two astrologers.

Ancient Chinese Solar Eclipses




15. Mawangdui or Horse King Hill Texts (Book of Silk)
Other cultures have not been so optimistic. The Chinese, known for their meticulous observations, have left such fabulous relics as the Mawangdui silk, a textbook of 29 different cometary forms and the various disasters associated with them.



The Great Bear Constellation

The Big Dipper or Ursa Major Asterism


"Already on oracle bones is dou 斗 used to refer to the star constellation beidou 北斗, the Northern Ladle, in the West known as Ursa Major or the Great Bear. The 甲骨文字典 explains dou as "疑用為星名,即北斗,夕至翌日祭之.", "probably the name of a star (constellation), namely beidou, from the evening to the next day sacrifices are made to it".





 
The Sheng Sacrifice at Qi Shan

written by Harmen Daboek


There are other heavenly bodies which likewise exercise an influence upon the earth. As the five planets form, in addition to the sun and moon, the seven rulers of the seasons, thus also the seven stars of the Great Bear contribute their quota to the direction of the seasons. This splendid constellation has attracted the attention and poetical fancy of almost every nation on earth; but I never heard of any people that turned this remarkable cluster of stars to such a practical account. The Chinese look upon the seven stars of the Great Bear as forming a natural clock. For the body of the Great Bear being in ancient times considerably nearer to the North Pole than it is now, the tail appeared to move round the pole somewhat like the hand of a clock or watch. Considering then the earth's surface to form the dial-plate and dividing the horizon into twenty-four equal parts, whilst the tail of the Great Bear acts as the hand of the clock, we have a simple method to determine the above mentioned twenty-four seasons of the year. When the tail of the Great Bear points, at nightfall, to the East, it is spring to all the world. When it points to the South, it is summer; when it points to the West, it is autumn; and when it points, at nightfall, to the North, it is winter. The light of these seven stars is supposed moreover to exercise a great influence upon the earth and upon all dwellers on earth, and these seven stars are, therefore, combined with sun and moon, called the nine luminaries of the world.

The Great Bear Constellation also represented the government in ancient Chinese culture.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/index.htm
see Confucianism folder, Feng Shui file, The Laws of Nature, Chapter II, Ernest Eitel, 1883



 
On Chinese Astronomy

written by S. Y. Ho




List of Chinese Constellations and their Western Equivalents.

Jiao (Spica), Kang (Virgo), Di (Libra), Fang (Libra), Xin (Antares), Wei (Scorpius), Ji (Sagittarius), Dou (Sagittarius), Niu (Capricorn), Nu (Aquarius), Xu (Aquarius), Wei Aquarius/Pegasus, Shi (Pegasus), Bi (Pegasus), Kui (Andromeda), Lou (Aries), Wei (Aries), Mao (Pleiades), Bi (Taurus), Zi (Orion), Shen (Orion), Jing (Gemini), Gui (Cancer), Liu (Hydra), Xing (Alphard), Zhang (Crater), Yi (Corvus), Zhen (Corvus)


Chinese Names of the Twenty-Eight Constellations


二十八宿是中国天文学的一个特别重要的概念.下面具体介绍各宿.

名称 角. 亢. 氐. 房. 心. 尾. 箕. 斗. 牛. 女. 虚. 危. 室. 壁.
星期 木. 金. 土. 日. 月. 火. 水. 木. 金. 土. 日. 月. 火. 水.
编号 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

名称 奎. 娄. 胃. 昴. 毕. 觜. 参. 井. 鬼. 柳. 星. 张. 翼. 轸.
星期 木. 金. 土. 日. 月. 火. 水. 木. 金. 土. 日. 月. 火. 水.
编号 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

http://www.china939.com/cdxx/wj/sdyz-28s.htm





Constellations Catalogued at a Later Time
 
As far as cataloguing went, Shi Shen, Gan De, and Wu Xian (370-270 B.C. in sum) recorded 1464 stars in 283 constellations. This is 200 years before the first western catalogue (by Hipparchus). In A.D. 310, Astronomer Royal Qian Luozhi had a bronze celestial globe made with stars that were color-coded as to their source. From the Han Dynasty, there are carvings that show constellations and asterisms with stars linked to delineate the various groups.

The Chinese constellations were in the form of Five Palaces; the number five possibly results from the five elements of earth, fire, water, metal, and wood.

The Palace of Purple Tenuity was the circumpolar area.
The Palace of the East was the Azure Dragon.
The Palace of the South was the Vermillion Bird.
The Palace of the West was the White Tiger.
The Palace of the North was the Dark Warrior, represented by an intertwined turtle and snake.
 


Historical Supernovae observed by Humanity

2241 BC ?? ? -10 Dubiously listed in some source
352 BC ? CHINESE; "first such record" according to Hellemans/Bunch
4 BC spring AQUILA Chinese
185 AD Cen -2 G315.4-2.3 CHINESE
369 ? CHINESE
386 Sgr G11.2-0.3? CHINESE
393/396 Sco -3 SNR 393 CHINESE
437 ? Gem
827 ? Sco/Oph -10
902 ? Cas 0
1006 Apr 30 Lup -9+-1 SNR 1006 Arabic; also CHINESE, Japanese, European
1054 Jul 4 Tau -6 M1 CHINESE, North American (?); also Arab, Japan
1181 Aug 6 Cas -1 3C 58 CHINESE and Japanese
1203 ? Sco 0
1230 ? AQUILA 1572 Nov 6 Cas -4 Tycho SNR Tycho Brahe's SN
1592 ? Cet Korean; probably Nova
1592 ? Cas Korean; probably Nova
1592 ? Cas Korean; probably Nova
1604 Oct 9 Oph -3 Kepler SNR Johannes Kepler's SN
1680? 1667? Cas Cas A Flamsteed ? not seen ?


Historical Supernovae which include those observed in Aquila

 

Hartmut Frommert,Christine Kronberg, April 2005



Star Maps from Dunhuang
http://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/controller/textsearch?text=dunhuang&start=21&height28starid=7064&idx=1&width=4&height=2&startid=7014

Tang Dynasty 618 - 906 A.D.
This section of the scroll depicts an anthropomorphic figure holding a bow, labelled 'God of Lighning' in Chinese.


A Chinese star chart possibly dating from the 7th century AD mapped the heavens with an accuracy unsurpassed until the Renaissance, according to research.

The Dunhuang chart is the oldest manuscript star map in the world and one of the most valuable treasures in astronomy.

The fine paper scroll, measuring 210 by 25 centimetres, (82 by 10 inches) displays no less than 1,345 stars grouped in 257 non-constellation patterns.




Solving Scientific and Medical Problems in General Research on China, Nathan Sivin, Draft 4, 2005.11.8

This webpage provides ways to research Astrology and Astronomy among other areas of scientific interest that include the following areas:

1. Orientation
2. Han cosmology
3. Stars as Tang authors saw them
4. Converting old Chinese dates to new modern ones
5. Archeoastronomy in China
6. Collection of rare early star maps
7. Detailed and up-to-date history
8. Comparing Chinese eclipse records with those of other cultures


Chinese Astrology and Astronomy Research Materials




Ancient Chinese Star Charts of the 283 Constellations

http://www.hebl.name/zh/archives/2004/04/29/




Three Enclosures

紫 微 垣 Purple Forbidden Enclosure
太 微 垣 Supreme Palace Enclosure
天 市 垣 Heavenly Market Enclosure

Each of these enclosures contains a number of asterisms and some named stars. Then there are twenty-eight mansions that contain a number of asterisms and a few named stars.


Complete Listing of Enclosures, Mansions, Asterisms and Stars are found at the link below.


English-Chinese Glossary of Chinese Star Regions, Asterism and Star Names.
 
Hong Kong Space Museum






The Nested Rectangles and Triangles of the NCP

While the rectangle is not a natural shape on the earth nevertheless it is perceived to be found in the heavens. For example, it is found as the North Circumpolar Rectangle (NCP). On one end it is composed of the stars Alcor-Mizar and Alioth of Ursae Majoris (Big Dipper) and on the other end Pherkad and Kocab of Ursae Minoris (Little Dipper). The dipper asterisms revolved once a year about the polestars 11 Draconis and 10 Draconis—its binary companion.  In the early Egyptian lunar calendar this revolution took 360 days.  The author contends that in the same way it may have been seen that 10 Draconis orbited seven times in 359.8 days around 11 Draconis. To be more specific, they orbited each other in a gravitational embrace. 

Both polestars were visible to the naked eye. It was reported that in the past 11 Draconis (the Alpha star of the constellation of Draco) was actually brighter than it is today. Currently, its apparent magnitude is 3.65 while the magnitude of 10 Draconis is 4.62.  The polestar today is called Polaris which is brighter than both although it will never be as close to the northern pole. 



                       



Mirovlav Verner who was author of The Pyramids used a simulated reconstruction of the sky over Giza in 2,500 BCE. He shows that the north shaft in the King's Chamber was aimed at Alpha Draconis (Thuban) ... while in the Queen's Chamber the north shaft was aimed at Beta Ursae Minoris (Kochab). It is conceivable that these shafts directed the souls of the pharaoh and his queen on their solar boats to the afterlife.

An Overview of the History of Ideas on the Shafts in Khufu's Pyramids

  http://www.kolumbus.fi/chris.tedder/OKAD/HistoryofShafts.htm


 
                                                                                                     
                                  
The Nile Decoded:  Revealing the Secret of the World's Longest River, Goro Adachi, 2003


In 2787 BCE, 11 Draconis (Thuban) lay just 1/180 of the width of the full moon from the northern pole.  Both 11 and 10 Draconis remained pole stars from around 4000 to 1900 BCE. These pole stars were also known respectively by the Chinese as Taiyi and Tianyi which according to Didier "are none other than those that sat at the pole during the 3rd millennium B.C." (Didier, "In and Outside the Square", p.82.  Taiyi was called Taiyi (太一) or the Great One and Tianyi (天一) or The Heavenly One. It is likely that Tianyi was another name for Taiyi when the god toured.

It is conjectured by the author that the perceived distance between 11 Draconis and 10 Draconis at its furthest point within the North Circumpolar Rectangle at the tail of Draco served as approximate measurements for the original heights of The Great Pyramid (Khufu) or 481.4 feet and Khafre or 471 feet. It is further hypothesized by D. Carlton Rossi that there is a smaller nested rectangle within the NCP marked on one side by Draconis 11 and on the other side by Draconis 10 that may also have been appreciated by the ancients.  He terms this the Binary Star Nested Rectangle of the NCP. (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014)

The three sides of the The Great Pyrmid are as follows: 1) Pherkad to 11 Draconis to Alcor -Mizar  2) Alcor-Mizar to  Merak  3)  Merak to Pherkad. The three sides of the Khafre pyramid are as follows: 1) the 10 Draconis line   2) down to Merak  3) towards the baseline of the nested rectangle of the NCP and pointing to Pherkad.

This means that the Khufu pyramid (triangle) is the largest of the nested triangles. The royal falcon which represents the pharaoh is a nesting bird. From the 
Sacred Celestial Falcons (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) one can see a falcon on the left which might be superimposed upon the nested triangles. The feature of nesting indicates close family ties between father,son and grandson.


                                     
                     
                                
 
 Himmelsk nestede pyramidene  (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014)
 Norwegian
 The Nested Celestial Pyramids



The pyramid of Menkaure (grandson)is a nested pyramid (triangle) of both Khafre and Khufu.  It runs as follows:  1) one side from Megrez to the base of Khafre and Khufu  2) the other side from Megrez to Merak while the base runs toward Pherkad. It means effectively that one side of Khufu and Khafre are pointing toward the cup of the Little Dipper while another side of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaura are pointing to the cup of the Big Dipper.  All three bases of the pyramids (triangles) link the cups of the Big and Little Dippers. All three pyramids (triangles) sit on top of the solar boat of Ra.

   
The terms triangles and pyramids have been used interchangeably; however, while they may be similar they are not the same. Therefore, another I'mage (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) is introduced for clarification. It is from the pyramid series and called  Die Himmilishcen Fundamente der Pyramiden  (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014).  It shows what might be called an aerial or celestial view of the pyramids with the solar boat on its side.  The three pyramids have four sides and square bases. Also, they are notable in that there is an equalization of their size which might indicate pyramids and pharaohs of equal importance in contrast to the nested version.

This equalization is also reflected in the interlocking triangular version called El Enclavamiento Pirámides Celestes (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014). Equalization promotes harmonization while differentiation supports stratification. It is apparent that both equalization and stratification exist simultaneously in an ideal reality. Its purpose might be to achieve a cosmic balance. 



                         

                              Die Himmilishen Fundamente der Pyramiden

                                          German  (D. Carlton Rossi  copyright 2014)

                      The Celestial Foundations of the Pyramids  (English)
  

In geometric terms one can see how the large triangle associated with Ra or the sun god may be reflected in the triangle belonging to Hathor or the moon goddess which is opposite to it.  (see Le Bateau Lunaire d’Het Hert (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) of the pyramid series). Together, the two triangles can be viewed as a square.



                                   



                      I'mage of the Ages (D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2014)


I'mage of the Ages (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) is a detailed mandala which in part represents the attempt to square the circle. As you can see though it can provide a basic template for the two asterisms.
 This poem also illustrates how the NCP Rectangle is located at the top of the second square from the centre. It should be noted that The Elegant Celestial Giza series is black on white (with the exception of the vulture) whereas the Banpo series is white on black.

 
                                   


                                          Poem 29  

The triangle and square patterns are not exclusive to The Elegant Celestial Giza series (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014). They are also prevalent in the Banpo Poetry series (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014) as mandalas and other poems. This particular pattern combines the frog-fish images. In the celestial versions of both series the frog and fish are sacred animals.                                                                       

Po
            

天空的 狮头人像        

     Chinese     

     Ta4 Tsun1 Tian1 Kong1 de Shi1 Tou2 Ren2 Xiang4

     Extremely Honourable Celestial Sphinx

      
      







            Greek Cosmology and Mythology





1. The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great
, Lionel Pearson, p.145.

According to Strabo, Nearchus started on his coastal voyage at the time of the evening rising of the Pleiad in the autumn. Arrian gives the Athenian date (just before the rising) of the twentieth of Boedromion which according to Beloch's calculation would be September 20th or 21st in the year 326 B.C.


2. "Nearchus says that when they were sailing along the coast from Kyiza, just at daylight they saw a stream of water spurting out from the sea as though it were being forced up by squalls of wind; and alarmed at this they asked the guides what this thing was and what caused it; and they replied that there were whales moving along under the surface spouting water. Nearchus says that the oars fell from the hands of the sailors in fright; and he went along the line of ships to rouse their spirits and cheer them, and all the crews that he came to as he sailed along he told them to raise the battle cry in line with their stroke and to row at full speed and splashing furiously. So they plucked up courage and at the signal they moved away all together, and when they came near the monsters they shouted with all the strength of their lungs and the trumpets sounded, and the splash of theirr oars could be heard for a great distance and so it happened that the whales, just as they became visible ahead of the ships took fright and dived down into the depths and afterwards came up to the surface astern and again set up a great spout of water. Then there was a clatter of applause from the sailors at their remarkable escape and praise for the courage and cleverness of Nearchus"

The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great, Lionel Pearson, pp.136-137.
Anabasis of Alexander and Indica, Chapter XXX, p.436.


3. Orcinus


The orca "killer whale" is the largest member of the dolphin family. It has a tall, falcate (sickle-shaped dorsal fin and large paddle-like flippers. Orcas eat a diverse diet of fish, squid, sharks, marine animals, turtles, octopi and birds. Orcas commonly breach.

Orca Whale

Class:Mammalia
Order: Cetacea (whales and dolphins)
Suborder: Odontoceti (toothed whales)
Family: Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins)
Genus: Orcinus
Species: Orca


a. Orca Whale Breaching

b. Orca Whale Breaching


4. Right Whale

The Right Whale is a baleen whale that filter feeds plankton and tiny crustaceans like copepods, krill and pteropods from the water. It has no dorsal fin. It is one of the largest animals on the planet.

The Right Whale often breaches; for example, Eubalaena Australis breaches commonly. A true breach is when the whale breaks the water. twists in the air and lands on its back. Whales breach about 80% of the time in this way; otherwise, they do what I call a false breach or a belly flop.

Right Whale

Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetacea (whales and dolphins)
Suborder: Mysticeti (baleen whales)
Family: Balaenidae
Genus: Eubalaena



 


Southern Right Whale or Baleana Australis Breaching

b. Southern Right Whale Breaching

http://www.whale.org/images/gallery/rightwhale_breach_500.jpg



5. Bottlenose Dolphin

Delphinus or The Dolphin is modelled on the common Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin. It is also found in the Mediterranean Sea.

The Atlantic Bottlenose is a small cetacean. It is one of 76 cetacean species. It has a long, beaklike snout, a facate (sickle-shaped) dorsal fin, and sharp teeth. It lives in small group called a pod. The dolphin grows to be at most 12 feet (3.7m) long and may weigh as much as 1,400 pounds (635 kg.) It has a streamlined body and a rounded head. It also has slightly pointed flippers. It is a hunter that eats mostly fish and squid. Orcas and sharks are its natural enemy.


Bottlenose Dolphin Breaching
http://web.ics.purdue.edu/%7Econreys/103files/afternoonclass/eneedham/dolphin2.jpg

Bottlenose Dolphin, Southern Right Whale and Orca Pictures



6. "Moreover, Nearchus says that when the king was completing his journey he himself began the voyage, in the autumn, at the time of the rising of the Pleid in the west".

Strabo, Geography,Loeb Classical Library, 1932, Book XV, Chapter 2



7. Constellations of the Autumn season include Aquila, Hercules, Delphinus and Orion



8. Homer refers to the star Sirius of Canis Major as the "autumnal star" in The Iliad.

"And Pallas now the ennoble Diomed

Amongst the Greeks, with force did him inspire,

Whereby his heart and hands were strengthened;

And on his shield and helmet stood a fire."


[ The first battle continued, wherein Pallas strengthened Diomedes to supply the absence of Achilles.

Bright as the autumnal star above his head.]

Homer, The Iliad, ed. Molesworth, Book Five, lines 1-5



9. THE HERCULES CONSTELLATION


Heracles, in mythology, is best known for his twelve labors, which are thought to represent the Sun's passing through the twelve constellations of the zodiac.

Named Stars of Hercules

Alpha 1 Her (RASALGETHI)
Double Star 1. orange 2. emerald

Beta Her (Kornephoros)

Delta Her (Sarin)
Double Star 1. greenish white 2. grape red

Kappa Her (Marfik)
Double Star 1. yellow 2. orange

Lambda Her (Maasym)
Omega Her (Kajam)

Her 113 (yellow color)
Her 110 (white color)
Her 111 (white color)


Hercules Constellation as presented by Starry Skies


 


Milky Way Hercules Constellation


Hercules the Kneeling Man
http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/Hercules.html

Star Diagram of Hercules


10. The Supernova of M13 Hercules Globular Cluster M1

This cluster is known as the Crab Nebula. The supernova remnant is one of the most famous in the night sky. It was discovered by Edmond Halley in 1714.

Supernova in the Crab Nebula of the constellation Hercules
http://www.jolc.net/M13_C5_page.html


11. THE AQUILA CONSTELLATION

Aquila (the Eagle) is the messenger from heaven, leading souls to immortality.


Named Stars of Aquila

Alpha Aql (ALTAIR)
1. yellowish white to white, Spectral Class A
- eagle's breast

Beta Aql (ALSHAIN)
Double Star 1. yellow 2. red

Gamma Aql (TARAZED)
1. bright orange to reddish
- eagle's back

Epsilon Aql (Deneb el Okab) (Deneb Australis) 13 Aql
1. orange color
- eagle's tail

Zeta Aql (Deneb el Okab) ((Deneb Borealis) 17 Aql
1. white color
- eagle's tail


Bordering Constellations
* Sagitta
* Hercules
* Ophiuchus
* Serpens Cauda
* Scutum
* Sagittarius
* Capricornus
* Aquarius
* Delphinus

I. Description of Stars in Aquila

a)ALTAIR: also called Alpha Aquilae, is the most southerly of the three stars of the Summer Triangle. It is also the most similar to our Sun, being only 1.5 times larger, and 10 times more luminous. It's also closer to us than either Vega or Deneb only 17 light years away. Altair is part of the Aquila (Eagle) constellation.

b)TARAZED: The name of this star, Tarazed, comes from the Persian name for the constellation of Aquila, Shahin tara zed, "The Star-striking Falcon."





Milky Way Aquila Constellation

 

Aquila the Eagle
http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/Aquila.html


Star Diagram of Aquila



12. Supernova observed in the Aquila constellation at the birth of Christ

A supernova explosion (lasting a couple of months) was observed by Chinese astronomers and is also mentioned in the Korean chronicles. This supernova was presaged by a triple conjunction of Jupiter, Saturn and Mars in February of 6 BC.

Interestingly, according to Matthew 2:9, the three Magi (Zoroastrian astronomer-priests) first witnessed the nova event in the eastern sky (over Iran) but then, having completed their long journeyed down to Jerusalem, they saw the Star appearing in the southern sky over Bethlehem at dawn: '… they (the Magi) departed (from Jerusalem) and, lo, the Star which they (first) saw in the east went forth (southward) before them until it came and stood over where the child was'. Kidger has determined that the heliacal rising of the Aquila supernova shifted in the sky from east to south over the seventy or so days it took the Magi to reach Palestine - in accordance with Matthew's gospel.

Zorastrianism


Supernova observed by Chinese in constellation H0-Ku (Aquila)

"However, Ho Peng Yoke in his catalogue of "Ancient and Mediaeval Observations of Comets and Novae in Chinese Sources" lists two objects in 5 and 4 B.C. in the Chinese constellations Chhien-Niu and HO-KU, respectively. These small configurations correspond to regions in Capricorn including beta and xi Caprircorni, and in AQUILA including alpha (Altair), gamma, and phi Aquilae".

Star of Bethlehem
http://www.aavso.org/publications/newsletter/number24/review.shtml


In the book called the "Ch'ien-han-shu", we find the following reference:

"In the second year of the period of Ch'ien-p'ing, second month, a hui-hsing appeared in Ch'ien-niu for more than 70 days"

Chinese and Babylonian Observations
http://www.iac.es/galeria/mrk/Chinese.html




13. Novae and Supernovae in Aquila


Supernova 2004dc was discovered by Tom Boles in the constellation Aquila

Picture of SN2004dc Supernova


Two early Novae were recorded in Aquila. The first one appeared in 389 A.D. was as bright as Venus. The second one shone brighter than Altair (the brightest star of Aquila).

Nova Aquila was an aged white dwarf star that exploded in late 1999. It put out more than 100,000 times more energy than our sun. Eight months after the initial explosion the activity was still not over. It had taken 100,000 years to get enough energy to trigger a thermonuclear explosion.


Going Nova: New Surprises from an Ancient Star

by Robert Roy Britt





14. Named Stars of Delphinus

Alpha Del (Sualocin)
Beta Del (Rotanev)
Epsilon Del (Deneb Dulfim)
Gamma Del
Double Star 1. gold 2. bluish green



 

Milky Way Constellation Delphinus

Delphinus the Dolphin, Rescuer of Poetry
http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/Delphinus.html



15. The Pleiades

October 10th Rise of the Vergiliae (Pleiades)

"When the Pleiades Atlagenes (born of Atlas) are rising [early May], begin your harvest, and your ploughing when they are going to set [November]. Forty nights and days they are hidden and appear again as the year moves round, when first you sharpen your sickle." - Hesiod, Works & Days 383

And so up to this time Orion seems to be following them (Pleiades) as they flee towards the west. "The Pleiades, fleeing adread from glorious Orion, plunge beneath the stream of tireless Okeanos." - Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5.367



16. The Forty-Eight Constellations Listed in Ptolemy's Almagest



***21 Northern Constellations***

Andromeda, AQUILA, Auriga, Boötes, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Corona Borealis, Cygnus, DELPHINUS, Draco, Equuleus, HERCULES, Lyra, Ophiuchus, Pegasus, Perseus, Sagitta, Serpens, Triangulum, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor


***12 Zodiacal Constellations***

Aries, Aquarius, Cancer, Capricornus, Gemini, Leo,
Libra, Pisces, Sagittarius, Scorpius, Taurus, Virgo


***15 Southern Constellations***

Ara, Argo Navis, Canis Major, Canis Minor, Centaurus, Cetus,
Corona Australis, Corvus, Crater, Eridanus, Hydra, Lepus, Lupus, Orion, Pisces Austrinus



 




Bibliography



Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander and Indica, translator Edward Chinnock, London: George Bell and Sons, 1893.

Homer, The Iliad and The Odyssey in the English Works of Thomas Hobbes, editor Sir William Molesworth, (London:Bohn, 1839-45) Vol. 10

Pearson, Lionel, The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great, , The American Philological Association, New York, N.Y. 1960

Strabo, Geography,Loeb Classical Library, 1932


Eighty-Eight Modern Western Constellations and their Chinese Names

Andromeda 仙女座 | Antlia 唧筒座 | Apus 天燕座 | Aquarius 寶瓶座 | AQUILA 天鷹座 | Ara 天壇座 | Aries 白羊座 | Auriga 御夫座 | Boötes 牧夫座 | Caelum 雕具座 | Camelopardalis 鹿豹座 | Cancer 巨蟹座 | Canes Venatici 獵犬座 | Canis Major 大犬座 | Canis Minor 仙后座 | Centaurus 半人馬座 | Cepheus 仙王座 | Cetus 鯨魚座 | Chamaeleon 蝘蜓座 | Circinus 圓規座 | Columba 天鴿座 | Coma Berenices 后髮座 | Corona Australis 南冕座 | Corona Borealis 北冕座 | Corvus 烏鴉座 | Crater 巨爵座 | Crux 南十字座 | Cygnus 天鵝座 | DELPHINUS 海豚座 | Dorado 劍魚座 | Draco 天龍座 | Equuleus 小馬座 | Eridanus 波江座 | Fornax 天爐座 | Gemini 雙子座 | Grus 天鶴座 | HERCULES 武仙座 | Horologium 時鐘座 | Hydra 長蛇座 | Hydrus 水蛇座 | Indus 印第安座 | Lacerta 蝎虎座 | Leo 獅子座 | Leo Minor 小獅座 | Lepus 天兔座 | Libra 天秤座 | Lupus 豺狼座 | Lynx 天貓座 | Lyra 天琴座 | Mensa 山案座 | Microscopium 顯微鏡座 | Monoceros 麒麟座 | Musca 蒼蠅座 | Norma 矩尺座| Octans 南極座| Ophiuchus 蛇夫座| Orion 獵戶座| Pavo 孔雀座 | Pegasus 飛馬座 | Perseus 英仙座 | Phoenix 鳳凰座 | Pictor 繪架座 | Pisces 雙魚座 | Piscis Austrinus 南魚座 | Puppis 船尾座 | Pyxis 羅盤座 | Reticulum 網罟座 | Sagitta 天箭座 | Sagittarius 人馬座 | Scorpius 天蝎座 | Sculptor 玉夫座 | Scutum 盾牌座 | Serpens 巨蛇座 | Sextans 六分儀座 | Taurus 金牛座 | Telescopium 望遠鏡座| Triangulum 三角座 | Triangulum Australe 南三角座 | Tucana 杜鵑座 | Ursa Major 大熊座 | Ursa Minor 小熊座 | Vela 船帆座 | Virgo 室女座 | Volans 飛魚座 | Vulpecula 狐狸座


Aquila 天鷹座

This constellation exhibits 70 stars visible to the naked eye.

It includes five Chinese constellations.

1. Market Officer
2. Celestial Drumstick
3. Pearls on Ladies' Wear
4. Right Flag
5 Drum at River



Delphinus 海豚座


This constellation exhibits 30 stars visible to the naked eye.

It includes two Chinese constellations.

1. Good gourd
2. Bad gourd



Hercules 武仙座

This constellation exhibits 140 stars visible to the naked eye.

It includes nine Chinese constellations.

1. EMPEROR'S SEAT
2. Patriarchal Clan
3. Left Wall
4. Textile Ruler
5. Eunuch Official
6. Celestial Discipline
7. Celestial Flail
8. Woman's Bed
9. Butcher Shop




                                                         
Certainty



Generally speaking, all material things change and are in a process of flux.  How does one achieve some measure of certainty in uncertain times and places?  This paper will look at some methods to achieve a degree of certainty either directly or indirectly through astronomy while concluding with possible consequences of uncertainty.

The flooding of the Nile River was important to ancient Egyptian civilization. The silts brought by the river nourished the land.  In terms of certainty of time, a method was devised to predict the onset of flooding.  It was realized that there was a connection between our sun (a star) and the distant star of Sirius.  On a certain date every year our sun eclipsed Sirius.  It hid Sirius for 70 days or during the time of flooding.  (It no longer predicts flooding because of precession).

In China, the flooding of the Yellow River was not so benign. These destructive floods seemed unpredictable and irregular. Therefore, a great degree of uncertainty arose. 

However, Huangdi devised two ways to establish certainty in other areas. The first method was the invention of the south-pointing chariot. There had been an uncertainty in warfare regarding directions. If the sky was overcast and one’s position could not be set by the sun during the day or by the stars at night then one was at a great disadvantage. Also, if natural phenomenon like fog obscured one’s view then one could not advance against the enemy. A geared mechanism allowed Huangdi to direct his army through heavy fog.  It was a scientific invention that allowed Huangdi to defeat his enemy.  The direction of the pointer could also be verified in clear skies with positions of the sun and stars.  

The second invention of Huangdi which led to certainty was the calendar based on the solar year.  The lunar calendar varied too much and its accuracy was deficient. If one wished to understand the heavens and one’s relation to the stars then a lunar-solar calendar was needed. Civilization, too, was advancing from a nomadic to a sedentary society based on agriculture and aquaculture. Farmers had a better idea when to plant and harvest crops in the fields and rice in the fish ponds, based on the new calendar. 

Confucius established certainty with his reference to the Pole Star which shows the north direction. He said that the Pole Star is regarded as the one around which all others pivot. Over the millennia, the position of the pole star varies. In 2700 BCE, it was Thuban of Draco, in Confucius’ time it was Polaris while in the year 13,727 BCE it will be Vega. It will return to these stars, too.  Whatever the name of the pole star, it will serve to guide in uncertain circumstances and provide certainty for many in many ways.

The character “ru” is said to have come from the character “xu” which was composed of two parts or cloud and sky. The meaning of the character ru has also changed over the centuries, as has the position of the pole star; but, the importance of both has not changed. The shamans of the Shang Dynasty studied rituals, but they also needed to familiarize themselves with astronomy/astrology to predict rain or drought.  Ritual dances were performed in rain-making. This is reflected in the poem called  where there was a ritual dance of a shaman to bring rain.

          pinyin

            chì rì yán yán  xià  pù  wū

            qī  qiú  huò  cuì  niǎo  Tāng  tīng

            bīng  hé  tǔ  zhǐ  gān  yīn  wǔ

            wǔ dǎo  zhī  xiāng kè  lǚ xíng

             translation

             shaman exposed under hot scorching sun

             long awaited sound of rain heard by kingfisher Tang

             ice and earth stopped aridness because of dance

             dance of mutual conquest performed



Later, ru applied to professionals in rites, rituals and ceremonies.  By the time of Confucius, ru referred to ritual masters who became teachers in official education.  They mastered six areas of skills.  One of the skills was astrology/astronomy.  For example, Confucius recorded thirty-seven eclipses of the sun between 720 and 481 BCE. 

Yao, Xinzhang, An introduction to Confucianism, Yao, Xinzhang, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge:2000, pp.19-20.


It seems that there are at least three ways to establish certainty. They are related either directly or indirectly to the stars. The first way is the invention of a calendar. It may be a solar calendar, used by the Egyptians, based on the heliacal rising of Sirius along with the flooding of the Nile or the Chinese calendar based on longitude of sun and lunar phases. The second way is through a design or physical invention that shows direction such as the south-pointing chariot in China. The third way is the study of astrology/astronomy. It was said, for example, in Egypt that the Nile mirrored the Milky Way while in China the Yellow River mirrored the river of stars. In particular, though, it was the recognition by many civilizations that stars pivoted around the Pole Star and the Big Bear pointed to it.    

The poet wished to honor Confucius.  He decided to design a full constellation or asterism called 至聖 星座  (© D. Carlton Rossi).  It would combine seven stars from two different constellations and also add our sun. The number of stars would coincide with the number of stars in Ursa Major plus the Pole Star in Ursa Minor.  While the poet’s “Golden Sol” deals directly with the new constellation; nevertheless, its precedent was a reference to the Big Dipper and Polaris in an earlier poem called “The Question Mark”.  Notice that in the second line there are eight words of two letters each. As the question mark mimitates the pattern of Dipper and Polaris, so, too, does the new constellation imitate it. 

                               Interrogate point might mimitate
                               distant Dipper and Polaris.

                               Or no to do so is of
                               an arbitrary pattern.

 

The new constellation would include opposite kinds of whales in a harmonic dance. The idea of “harmony” is a key concept of Confucianism. It is no accident that the painting depicting the ritual dance of the male and female whale is called harmony.

Our sun would hold a special place in the constellation at the tip of the arc of the dorsal fin of the Orca whale. Of course, we are able to establish direction with our sun because to us it rises in the east and sets in the west. This new constellation could be seen under special circumstances from the earth during a predicted eclipse of the sun or could be viewed from a hypothetical planet revolving around Sirius B. One of the stars of KGSC (© D. Carlton Rossi) or Altair is important for directions as a first magnitude star and as part of the Summer Triangle. It lies virtually overhead during the summer months in mid-northern latitudes.

In a more general way, today, the issue of certainty is also reflected in the stars and planets. What is the purpose for any nation(s) to visit the red planet if we cannot breathe on planet Earth because of uncontrolled automobile, industrial and power pollution?  Every breath we take becomes a struggle. Our enemy is the by-product of an industrialized civilization.  It enwraps everything. It insinuates itself into every crack and crevice. Human beings face great uncertainty,for example,with every breath they take.

It may not bother many if they can neither see the planet Mars nor know its direction by sight.  However, if one cannot see what one has built or created on the planet Earth or see nature’s creation then what is the purpose?  If one cannot see one’s own children and grandchildren because of smog then what is the meaning? If one celebrates one’s accomplishments through a display of fireworks, but cannot afterwards see them because of smoke clouds of burnt powder, then wherein lays the victory?  One is lost when one cannot see one’s goal and in what direction one is going to meet it.

It may be that we have reached the tipping point in terms of extinction of the human race. In that case, perhaps only a selected few will survive on a distant planet. The selected few will be able to see the stars and our sun. The few will be able to see our Earth which we could not see ourselves. 



                             Heavenly Rule





                                                                                                         



                                        


A board decision-making body is not a diplomatic occasion. At voting time, policymakers are not allowed to abstain! That is, a decision-maker must take responsibility. Abstaining also shows an attitude, but it is non-participatory, noncommittal and irresponsible.




The Civil Rights Movement in China and the Total Lunar Eclipse Tetrad of 2003-2004


It may be said that the civil rights movement in the United States gained impetus with the arrest and conviction of Martin Luther King for participation in anti-segregation mass-meetings, protests and sit-ins in Birmingham Alabama which began in April 1963. In the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” he argued that individuals have a moral duty through non-violence to disobey unjust laws.

However, it took four decades or rather eight five-year plans for the civil rights movement to begin in China. The year 2003 marked its emergence and one remarkable man came to the forefront–-Sun Dawu. The self-educated farmer and Confucian philosopher and poet  was on the verge of establishing Dawu Red Deer College through legal contracts which had been signed  to complement Dawu Group's school of 2000 students at a model village. Agreements were also signed with several universities as well as a Dalian hotel management school and a Japanese nanny training institute while the final stages of an agreement through a member of the Youth Communist League representing a chain of Mongolian schools was forthcoming.   There was only one more thing to do. The self-educated farmer was invited to give a key-note address at Peking University in the capital. One man was listened to by many on his Confucian views held by millions of Chinese throughout the ages.  He struck a chord. 

However, local officials in Xushui, Hebei were appalled by what they considered to be unorthodox ideas and ideals in a post-modernist world of which they had little understanding.  He was admonished for having spoken publicly about issues that should have remained private. This reaction was rather perplexing to some since the word “private” did not seem to exist in China. 

It was not long afterwards that Sun Dawu was arrested on the seemingly unrelated charge of illegal fund-raising. This charge according to his defense lawyer, Dr. Xu Zhiyong (who is currently serving a four year sentence for expression of civil rights’ issues) and Dean of Law Professor Jiang Ping could “theoretically forbid all borrowing and lending outside of official channels”. 

The Great Noon Sun received unprecedented support from all quarters. They included the peasants, scholars, entrepreneurs, and net citizens. International news organizations were quick to pick up the story by labelling him as a Confucian entrepreneur and Robin Hood. As a result, the court favored him with probation as a sentence. It should be noted though that he spent 160 days in jail without bail while his businesses fell apart.

There is a complementarity of events and timelines with those in the celestial sphere. The first tetrad of lunar eclipses began in 2003.  To be specific, it was the first tetrad of four consecutive total lunar eclipses of the 21st century. On May 16, 2003 a total lunar eclipse lasting 53 minutes was viewed.  

Less than two weeks later, on May 27th 2003, Sun Dawu was arrested at a dinner party given by Party officials. Two brothers were arrested, too. The poet D. Carlton Rossi was put under house arrest without the ability to contact a lawyer.  

To highlight matters though there was another celestial phenomenon which pertained to Sun. It was an annular solar eclipse on May 31st.  As a consequence there was an extraordinary geometry displayed according to NASA. The path of the annularity ran from east to west instead of vice versa. 

The second, Total Lunar Eclipse (TLE) took place on November 09, 2003. It may well do now to define a TLE. It is where the moon traverses the Earth’s penumbral and umbral shadows. This eclipse followed Sun’s conviction and release on probation which took place on November 03, 2003.

The third, Total Lunar Eclipse took place on May 04, 2004. Prior to this date, Sun Dawu was commenting on the concept of “Original Sin” in terms of the proposed amendment to the Constitution.  He said “I can see the aim of the document is to provide a better policy environment, but I can’t see the specific benefit, at least for now”.

The final, Total Lunar Eclipse took place on Oct. 28th 2004. At this time, Sun was formulating his own far-reaching constitutional system based on models in ancient China, Great Britain and the United States. In November, the Family Based Constitution with Republican overtones was implemented on a trial basis. It was perfected over time. Five elections have ensued so far at the village level. 

The first tetrad of Total Lunar Eclipses of the 21st century which is mentioned above covers the period 2003-2004. The second tetrad which is mentioned further on covers the years 2014-2015. Only one Total Lunar Eclipse remains.  It is projected to take place on September 28th, 2015. Recent events of tumultuous turmoil in China seem to presage a momentous occasion. To say the least there is unharmonious nous between the celestial and terrestrial. The countdown app which counts time toward that date (which is traditionally recognized as Confucius’ birthday) gets closer. 

To put it into perspective, it will be the last Total Lunar Eclipse of a double set of tetrads.  They comprise a total of eight Total Lunar Eclipses. Traditionally, September 28th marks the birth of Confucius.  An eclipse about 2500 years ago marked his birth and this year a total lunar eclipse marks his birthday.  



                            


            
Super Moon over Canada on September 27-28, 2015



The significance of the 8th Total Lunar Eclipse

The significance of the 8th Total Lunar Eclipse of the set of Tetrads involving the years 2003-2004 and 2014-2015 is becoming more evident.  On September 27-28, 2015 there was a Super Moon. The moon was at its perigree.   Therefore, it was 14% larger and 30% brighter than an ordinary Moon. 

There were significant human events that related to that time period.  Most notably were the visits to America of the President of the People’s Republic of China whose name is President Xi Jinping.  The President visited Seattle, Washington and New York.  In New York, he gave a speech to the General Assembly at its 70th opening session.

In Washington, President Obama welcomed two significant world leaders; namely, President Xi Jinping and Pope Francis who is more popularly known as Papa Francisco.  In New York, President Obama who represents the host of the UN and is President of the United States gave a comprehensive speech to representatives of about 200 countries. 

There was the extraordinary visit of Pope Francis to three American cities.  In Washington, ceremonies were held on the back lawn of the White House for about 15,000 people.  In New York, he visited the site of the fountain honoring those who lost their lives in the fall of the World Trade Center and held Mass.  Finally, in Philadelphia or the City of Brotherly Love and Sisterly Affection, he celebrated a Mass to Masses to over 1,000,000. 

       
                              

The Total Lunar Eclipse on September 27-28 as seen from Canada.


On the author’s website there was posted a short tract entitled The Year of the Two Suns.  It looked at the year of 2OO3 or the beginning of the first Tetrad of Total Lunar Eclipses.  It reiterated the view of the civil rights’ activist and defender, Dr. Xu Zhiyong, that 2OO3 marked the beginning of the civil rights’ movement in the People’s Republic of China.  There were two sons of China who were crucial to its inception;   namely, Sun Zhigang (孙志刚) and Sun Dawu (孙大午).


On September 14, 2015 a road near Dawu Village was blocked bandits. The Dawu Group reacted by petitioning the Xushui government for free movement. Then, a peaceful demonstration and march was organized on September 24, 2015 by 1000 villagers. It was not opposed by either police or authorities. 



                                                                                                                      
                                          The Moon of Sun

The moon is very beautiful, very bright, very lonely! The stars are gone?

月亮很美,很亮,也很孤独!星星去了哪里

Sun Dawu September 28 2015


The Total Lunar Eclipse coincided with the birthday of an important philosopher and teacher.  It was the birthday of Confucius who is known in China by the name of Kongzi.  Last year, at this time, there was an important state recognition of Confucius at his hometown which the author observed. 
 

For the poet, this date represented the beginning of a new poem called Poetic Analytic Imagery through the synthesis of 山上山 and 山过山 in an analysis called Poetic Analytics of Imagery through Stream of Consciousness and Unconsciousness. 

Despite the importance of all these events there was something that eclipsed them all in the heavens. It began with the Total Lunar Eclipse at the time of a Super Moon. The Moon turned a copperish-reddish color.  It was reflecting sunrises and sunsets all over the world.  While this spectacular event was transpiring the author noticed the red planet Mars which was basically facing it.  It was rather ordinary and no match for the bright Venus the night before. 

However, the color of the Moon at the moment of the Total Lunar Eclipse was coinciding with the red color of the planet Mars.  It was a harbinger of a momentous event in human history. This was the discovery of water on the planet Mars. The discovery of water is not so important to determine whether or not there was life on Mars. The discovery of water is not so important to determine whether or not there is life on Mars.  However, the discovery of water by NASA is important because it will mean that Mars is a habitable planet.  It may help to preserve the human race and life on this planet which is reaching a tipping point in terms of climate change. 

 

                                   

                              NASA image of water on Mars
                              Credits: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona


D. Carlton Rossi

September 28, 2015




                                  The Eclipses

Confucius recorded thirty-seven eclipses of the sun as seen from the state of Lu (lat. 35” 40 N and 117 E.)  It should be noted that the philosopher himself was born on the 20th day after the eclipse of the sun. The Julian Date of the eclipse would have been August 31st 552 B.C.  “In the year Wu-shin (45th of the cycle), being the 20th of Sian Kung, in winter, the day of the 10th moon being Ping-chin (the 53d of the cycle of days), the sun was eclipsed”.  Records provided by NASA confirm this date.

 03463 -552 August 31 11:01:31  17893 -31556  55   A   nn -0.0767 0.9391   7N  88E  86  227  07m59s  2.NASA

It is necessary though to convert the Julian day to a Gregorian one. First, twenty days is added to August 31st to bring it to September 20th. This Julian date can be converted to 15197088.5 which is September 26th, 2015 (Gregorian). By the way, Sun Yat-sen was the first to introduce the Gregorian system to China after the fall of the Qing Dynasty.  

This means that Confucius was born about September 26th; although, a slight adjustment is made for Dawu Village time. The anniversary of his birth date is traditionally celebrated on September 28th.

It so happens that there was a partial eclipse of the sun on September 13, 2015. However, the anniversary of the birth date is most remarkably highlighted by a total eclipse of the moon. This is especially notable because it will be the last lunar eclipse in a series of four which include total eclipses of the moon on the following dates in reverse chronological order: September 28 2015, April 04, 2015, October 08, 2014, and April 15, 2014. The time lapse photography shows the lunar eclipse over North Amerciaca.  It could also be seen in western China.

      
                                 
         

The most remarkable coincidence though seems to be that there was an eclipse of the moon which was visible throughout China on another important date or Tomb Sweeping day on April 04, 2015 when ancestors are revered. The duration of the eclipse as seen from Shanghai was five hours and fifty-eight minutes. One might consider that these two dates are linked in terms of the heavens where the emphasis is on Confucius and ancestors. 

                            
             

                       April 04, 2015 Lunar Eclipse 5. 


It may be that the Confucian poet and philosopher SUN Dawu who recently built several temples to his ancestors accords with the will of heaven. Those temples were completed at the time of the October 8th 2014 total lunar eclipse. There were certainly many offerings made to not only the ancestors of the Sun family, but also to Buddha and to Huangdi and Yandi. This period also corresponded to the 30th anniversary of the Dawu Group.

In relation to the first of the series of lunar eclipses which began on April 15th, 2014, it was at this time that Sun Dawu strongly criticized former head of public security Zhou Yongkang. Zhou was arrested for corruption. Sun said that “If Zhou Yongkang was involved in mafia groups he should be treated as a head of a gang to be punished.”  

In times past, the Chinese paid attention to unusual occurrences in the sky. Solar and lunar eclipses were of particular importance.  It was thought by the superstitious that the sun was being consumed by a dragon and the moon by a toad. These calamitous events presaged famine and disease.

However, at least one poet of China interpreted these occurrences in terms of complementarity. They highlighted the fact that even though both the sun and moon were of different masses and distances from the earth that they nevertheless appeared to the observer to be almost the same size in the sky. 

The sun is without and within the earth as
the moon is outside and inside the earth.

The sizeable sphere of the sun is as
the same size of the diminutive moon.

Revelation  D. Carlton Rossi  copyright  2015)

In the poem called Golden Sol, a harmonious dance is described between a static and dynamic pattern of stars. They form a new asterism or constellation called 至聖 星座
or Kong Greatest Sage Constellation. (D. Carlton Rossi  trademark  2007-15).  This joins stars from two different constellations on both sides of the Milky Way. In the painting called 和谐 or Harmony by the Russian painter Sasha Burka, the constellation becomes visible during the daytime at a particular time and space. This unusual circumstance is manifested because there is an eclipse of our sun which becomes the eighth star of the constellation. Its arc is representative of the horn of the Qilin of the skies whose counterpart is mirrored in the dorsal fin of the Orca of seas pointed to by the horned Narwhale.


                           

(D. Carlton Rossi  trademark  2007-15)  Painter Sasha Burka of Linyi University, Shandong Province




                                              

                                         Poem 7

The complementarity of eclipses is also expressed in an I’mage poem of the Banpo poetry series called Poem 7  The eclipses represent a rejuvenation and rebirth.  On the left is an eclipse of the moon. The bullfrog bellows its mating call and then swallows the moon. The astronomer Chang Hêng has written that Chang-ngo, who drank the liquor of immortality, ascended to the moon, where she was transformed into a toad, still to be traced in its face. The following quote from "Revelation" depicts Chang. 

Twenty-twenty eyeslighted by lunar shadedown as

white plate Chang E to copperish sphere.

On the right side of I’mage is depicted an eclipse of the sun.  It is the Ouroboros cyclically circling the sun. It eats its own tail and therein recreates itself in an eternal return.  On the left side is the frog that eats the moon.




 1.  The Chrono-Astrolabe: Containing a Full Set of Astronomic Tables, James Bowman Lindsay,  H.G. Bohn: London, 1908

 2.  www.eclipse.gfsc.nasa.gov/SEcat5/SE-0599--0500.html

 3.  www.csgnetwork.com/juliangregcalconv.html

 4.  https://sundawu.ca/Constellation.html

      https://sundawu.ca/Constellation2.html

 5.  http://www.timeanddate.com/eclipse/in/china/shanghai?iso=20150404



 
D. Carlton Rossi  copyright 2015




                             
 Prediction of Eclipses

As an historian, Confucius recorded the dates of eclipses; however, it is unknown if he could have predicted them.  It was though, of importance to astronomers and emperors to be able to predict them. Prediction suggested harmonization with the heavens.

The inability to predict certain eclipses might imply “moral imperfection in the emperor’s person, for it was his virtue that allowed him to keep in harmony with the rhythms of the cosmos”.1 For example, about 2300 B.C.E. or the reign of Emperor Shun, the astronomers Hi and Ho may have been lackadaisical or to have neglected their duties. Therefore, they were commanded to build a dome of the sky divided into degrees with earth at the center.2   Apparently, their descendants whose names were also Hi and Ho were beheaded for failing to predict an eclipse of the sun. The emperor had been unable to make preparations to ward off the evil influences which threatened harmony.

Today, one might humorously think of the song of the seven dwarfs.  The dwarfs were miners. They used to sing “Heigh ho, Heigh ho, it’s off to work we go”. The dwarfs were mining for diamonds and rubies.  Figuratively speaking, though, they might be considered to be mining the stars from the seven stars of the Big Dipper.                                      

Two of those stars of the dipper have spent their fuel. They don’t work so hard at mining. Perhaps they are the descendants of Hi and Ho. There is Megrez which is a white sequence main dwarf. This star is the dimmest of the seven. In the thigh of the bear is Phecda or Phad which has the same classification.  Actually, there are five A dwarfs in the Big Dipper which include Merek-A1, Phecda-A0, Megrez-A3, Alioth-A0, and Mizar-A2.3





1.  David H. Kelley, A.F. Aveni, Eugene F. Iilone, Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient Cultural Astronomy

2.  F. Crawford Brown, Popular Astronomy, December 1931: The Eclipse in China

3.  astro.hopkinsschools.org/course_documents/stars/dwarf_main_sequence/dwarf_main_weq_stars.htm



                                 

Access and egress roads are blocked with berms which created chaos for four hours.  There was little official reaction by authorities to the crisis which took place just prior to the Total Lunar Eclipse on September 28, 2016.

                              

A seemingly stricken woman who blocks the road is consoled by medical staff of Dawu Group.  This adds to the confusion and four hour delay in opening the road on September 14, 2015. 


                              

Traffic chaos ensues with the blockage of roads. It leads to a financial loss of roughly 170,000 yuan to Dawu Group.  Emergency access to the hospital is blocked. Freedom of movement and commerce is denied.  Oz-like omnipotent officials from the local government seem impotent in dealing legally and expeditiously with the crisis. 

                             

Organizers instruct participants in how to conduct an effective and peaceful march.


                            

Protesters are bounded by corn fields on one side and development at Dawu subsidiary on the other side. 
 

 
                             

Protesters implement The Art of Protest by Sun in a two hour march which might be termed The Short March to demand police protection from bandits interfering with freedom of movement and commerce.


                                


Demonstrators travel down the five kilometer road built by the Dawu Group in cooperation with local farmers to provide better access to the village. The road had to be private because there was no local government support for the project. Yet a toll gate at the entrance rakes in millions for the government.  


                                

Sun Dawu who is leading the  protest is flanked by his two brothers in white on the five kilometer protest. 


                                  

Wife of Sun Dawu carries red and yellow sign next to her husband on her right side. 


                                  

Protesters reach underpass near Toll Booths at entrance of highway to Tianjin. Dawu Village is at a critical juncture between Tianjin and Baoding which have recently become important administrative centers.  Tianjin is the fourth largest city in China, too. 

                                     

This photo of September 24, 2015 reminds me of the famous picture of The Beatles at Abbey Road zebra crossing on September 25, 1969. The marchers though are many in number. They are out of step, but with a single voice. They are unified. In a sense, they are non-conformists because they are about to walk across the zebra crossing. It is not a government road though--it is Sun's road. At heart, they are expressing Sun's philosophy of self-governance on The Way. Here Comes the Sun.


                                  

The Beatles are walking with the zebra crossing. This picture is within the genre of satire because it satirized conformism. They are waking in step, but away from EMI Studios where they had recorded their songs for seven years. Lennon is leading the revolt in his angelic looking suit. He had privately left the group before the album's release. Paul wears a suit, but wears no shoes on a hot pavement. George appears in denim. The basic form of the their bodies represents four peace symbols, but the four pieces are to break-up from The Beatles in the coming year.


                                    

This petition was submitted by Dawu Group to the Xushui government on September 23, 2015 regarding the events of September 14, 2015.



                                  
PEACEFUL MARCH            

Dawu Group reacts to road closure with petition to Xushui government. On the following day of September 24, 2015, one thousand villagers conduct a peaceful demonstration demanding freedom of movement and commerce.


                              
 
                                            The Sun Flag                          


                                    Peaceful Demonstration


Mr. Zhang Shuguang said that the presence of state-owned enterprises to suppress the growth of private enterprise. When private enterprises encounter difficulties, the local government does not act, is itself a kind of act, this attitude condone people against private enterprises. It is difficult for private enterprises to get fair treatment.

张曙光先生表示,国企的存在压制了民营企业的成长。当民营企业遭遇困难时,地方政府的不作为,本身也是一种作为,这种态度纵容了侵害民企的人,民企很难得到公正待遇。 October 6, 2015



                                  

孙大午:企业需要确立董事会制度

Sun Dawu: An Enterprise Board System needs to be established

January 24, 2016        (translated excerpts)


The first edition of Robert's Rules was published in February 1876 by then U.S. Army Major Henry Martyn Robert ((1837-1923) with the short title Robert's Rules of Order.

US politicians have a "Robert's Rules" which involve a detailed insight into human nature. There are conferences devoted to the Chair of the rules, there are rules made and for the expression of different views, there are rules relating to the debate. All of these are very, important, different voting rules. In fact, I think the family business has to have such a meeting on rules.

For example, in order to avoid disputes and ensure a variety of opinions to be fully expressed, the two sides can not talk directly to each other or to interrupt someone midway, and only speak indirectly to a "dumb Speaker" in accordance with the rules. Otherwise, if the disagreement is between two speakers then bickering will ensue and the result will probably be that nothing can be accomplished.





                                                               The Way

Hongshan culture epitomizes the Neolithic era in Inner Mongolia as it borders Liaoning and Hebei. Shamans decorated drums with the symbols of Venus and the constellation of the Great Bear. The main tradition of Hongshan culture was the Wu.  It represented the Way of Spirit of the Great Bear.                

A primitive rock carving was discovered by Wu Jiacai in 2006. The Neolithic stone carving was found on Baimiaozi Mountain near Chifeng City in northwest Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. It showed an earth sign which meant to flourish. “The Wu character was represented by a spoon or seven with the character for cliff or steep slope or the top of the mountain.” It has been interpreted as showing the seven stars of the Big Dipper.
                                                      

The poet imaginatively interprets the Wu character as a five star equilateral triangle called The Way.  (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2015) within The Great Bear Constellation. It resembles a mountain.  At the top of the triangle is a Yellow Giant binary star called Dubhe or the Alpha star of the Bear.  It was also known by the Chinese as the "Pivot" 樞 (sû) or 天樞 Tiān Shū star of the Celestial Pivot. It was also known as 北斗一 or First star of the Big Dipper at the centre of the Purple Forbidden Enclosure.

It, too, may be said to sit on the top and middle of what might be termed The Great Bear Rectangle or GBR (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2015) This rectangle on the back of the bear resembles to some extent the North Circumpolar Rectangle (NCP) on the back of the Sphinx which is topped by another pivot star known as 11 Draconis and its binary companion 10 Draconis or the pole star(s) in 3000 B.C.E.  It was called the Celestial Nail by the Mongol indigenous people.

There are four more important stars in the triangle called The Way (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2015).  There is Merak or the Beta star. It was known by the Chinese as "Beautiful jade" (sen). Today, Dubhe and Merak point to the present pole star called Polaris (binary star) in Ursae Majoris or the Little Bear.  However, in the past, they formed a line running to Psi Ursae Majoris (ψ) or Ta Tsun--which sounds like the contemporary pinyin version of Da Sun. One might also say that Ta Tsun points to Merak and then Dubhe.

                        


At the right corner of the equilateral triangle is a star called Theta UM which is on the front leg of the Bear. Further up on the right side of the triangle and parallel with Merak is the star known as Phi UM (φ). One might say that Theta and Phi point to Dubhe or the second brightest star (despite its Alpha designation) in The Great Bear Constellation.

It so happens, too, that a larger rectangle can be drawn which includes the GBR on top. This incorporates two companion triangles in addition to The Way. The left side of the left triangle has three stars. There is Ta Tsun, Phecda (Phad) and Megrez. They point to the pole star of 3000 B.C.E. known as 11 Draconis. In the opposite direction they point to Regulus or the heart of the Leo Constellation or Neo Leo (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2015).

Recently, a pyramid was discovered on the side of a mountain near Sijiazi Town, Aohan County of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. It is credited to Hongshan culture about 5000-6000 years ago. Does it correspond to The Way and/or the small equilateral triangle which bears the same name and whose stars are Dubhe and Merak at the GBR and Big Dipper?


Chinese Pyramids and Stepped Pyramids

The role of the pyramids and stepped pyramids is not fully understood.  Both appear to bring heaven and earth together.  However, the method of achieving this goal seems to differ.  The pyramid seems to point to the celestial realm. One might interpret the pyramid discovered at Sijiazi Town, Inner Mongolia in this way.  Its heavenly representation in the form of an equilateral triangle in the Great Bear Constellation points through the Great Bear Rectangle (GBR) to Alpha Ursae Majoris or Dubhe. The star Dubhe, in turn, mirrors the former pole star or Alpha 11 Draconis at the top of the North Circumpolar Rectangle (NCP).      

In contrast, the trapezoid-shaped, stepped pyramid seems to join with heaven. For example, it may have seven levels or six levels and then a platform which meets heaven.  It does not go through the GBR though it meets it.  The platform or top level allows the performance of priestly ceremonies and sacrifices.

An example of a stepped pyramid is Jiangjunfen or the so-called General’s Tomb 军坟 at the foot of Longshan Mountain which is near Jian, Jilin Province.  The base is square. The tomb consists of seven layers of marble stones. It is uncertain why the General’s Tomb has seven levels. On one hand, they may match the seven stars of the Big Dipper.  More probably, they may correspond to the seven ancient planets or Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter and the sun and moon.

The trapezoidal form of the General’s Tomb might be represented by the trapezoidal lower half of The Way equilateral triangle in the Great Bear Constellation. Technically, the heavenly quadrilateral is an isosceles trapezoid. This means it has one pair of parallel sides.  It meets the Great Bear Rectangle.






                                                                                                       



                                      



The Civil Rights Movement in China and the Total Lunar Eclipse Tetrad of 2003-2004


It may be said that the civil rights movement in the United States gained impetus with the arrest and conviction of Martin Luther King for participation in anti-segregation mass-meetings, protests and sit-ins in Birmingham Alabama which began in April 1963.  In the “Letter from Birmingham Jail” he argued that individuals have a moral duty through non-violence to disobey unjust laws.

However, it took four decades or rather eight five-year plans for the civil rights movement to begin in China. The year 2003 marked its emergence and one remarkable man came to the forefront–-Sun Dawu. The self-educated farmer and Confucian philosopher and poet  was on the verge of establishing Dawu Red Deer College through legal contracts which had been signed  to complement Dawu Group's school of 2000 students at a model village. Agreements were also signed with several universities as well as a Dalian hotel management school and a Japanese nanny training institute while the final stages of an agreement through a member of the Youth Communist League representing a chain of Mongolian schools was forthcoming.   There was only one more thing to do. The self-educated farmer was invited to give a key-note address at Peking University in the capital. One man was listened to by many on his Confucian views held by millions of Chinese throughout the ages.  He struck a chord. 

However, local officials in Xushui, Hebei were appalled by what they considered to be unorthodox ideas and ideals in a post-modernist world of which they had little understanding.  He was admonished for having spoken publicly about issues that should have remained private. This reaction was rather perplexing to some since the word “private” did not seem to exist in China. 

It was not long afterwards that Sun Dawu was arrested on the seemingly unrelated charge of illegal fund-raising. This charge according to his defense lawyer, Dr. Xu Zhiyong (who is currently serving a four year sentence for expression of civil rights’ issues) and Dean of Law Professor Jiang Ping could “theoretically forbid all borrowing and lending outside of official channels”. 

The Great Noon Sun received unprecedented support from all quarters. They included the peasants, scholars, entrepreneurs, and net citizens. International news organizations were quick to pick up the story by labelling him as a Confucian entrepreneur and Robin Hood. As a result, the court favored him with probation as a sentence. It should be noted though that he spent 160 days in jail without bail while his businesses fell apart.

There is a complementarity of events and timelines with those in the celestial sphere. The first tetrad of lunar eclipses began in 2003.  To be specific, it was the first tetrad of four consecutive total lunar eclipses of the 21st century. On May 16, 2003 a total lunar eclipse lasting 53 minutes was viewed.  

Less than two weeks later, on May 27th 2003, Sun Dawu was arrested at a dinner party given by Party officials. Two brothers were arrested, too. The poet D. Carlton Rossi was put under house arrest without the ability to contact a lawyer.  

To highlight matters though there was another celestial phenomenon which pertained to Sun. It was an annular solar eclipse on May 31st.  As a consequence there was an extraordinary geometry displayed according to NASA. The path of the annularity ran from east to west instead of vice versa. 

The second, Total Lunar Eclipse (TLE) took place on November 09, 2003. It may well do now to define a TLE. It is where the moon traverses the Earth’s penumbral and umbral shadows. This eclipse followed Sun’s conviction and release on probation which took place on November 03, 2003.

The third, Total Lunar Eclipse took place on May 04, 2004. Prior to this date, Sun Dawu was commenting on the concept of “Original Sin” in terms of the proposed amendment to the Constitution.  He said “I can see the aim of the document is to provide a better policy environment, but I can’t see the specific benefit, at least for now”.

The final, Total Lunar Eclipse took place on Oct. 28th 2004. At this time, Sun was formulating his own far-reaching constitutional system based on models in ancient China, Great Britain and the United States. In November, the Family Based Constitution with Republican overtones was implemented on a trial basis. It was perfected over time. Five elections have ensued so far at the village level. 

The first tetrad of Total Lunar Eclipses of the 21st century which is mentioned above covers the period 2003-2004. The second tetrad which is mentioned further on covers the years 2014-2015. Only one Total Lunar Eclipse remains.  It is projected to take place on September 28th, 2015.  Recent events of tumultuous turmoil in China seem to presage a momentous occasion. To say the least there is unharmonious nous between the celestial and terrestrial. The countdown app which counts time toward that date (which is traditionally recognized as Confucius’ birthday) gets closer. 

To put it into perspective, it will be the last Total Lunar Eclipse of a double set of tetrads.  They comprise a total of eight Total Lunar Eclipses. Traditionally, September 28th marks the birth of Confucius.  An eclipse about 2500 years ago marked his birth and this year a total lunar eclipse marks his birthday.   
 





                               

                                        Sun Dawu at trial in 2003


JUSTICE SYSTEM IN CHINA

The goal of the justice system has traditionally been to protect the interests of the state not the individual and to keep the masses under control. There is no independent judiciary in China. The courts are regarded as weak and subordinate to the Communist Party and the National People's Congress. Chinese justice is not based on the idea of innocent until proven guilty. For the most part one is guilty until proven innocent. People charged with crimes are nearly always convicted and sentences are rarely overturned.

China has a constitution with laws that are not all that different from laws in Western countries. The only problem is that these laws have traditionally been ignored, interpreted in strange ways or not enforced. There is a saying in China: “Power is greater than the law, money is greater than the law and connections are greater than the law."


http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat8/sub50/item299.html






             


权力大于法律,金钱大于法律,关系大于法律

“Power is greater than the law, money is greater than the law and connections are greater than the law."


Isn't the above modern Chinese idiom a corruption of the following Chinese phrase?

非禮勿視,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動

"Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety"


1. Yen Yüan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from others?"

2. Yen Yüan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The Master replied, "Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety." Yen Yüan then said, "Though I am deficient in intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

Legge XII.1-2



http://wengu.tartarie.com/wg/?l=Lunyu&no=294&m=NOzh




                          


The modern Chinese idiom is also a distortion of the Three Marks of Existence of Buddhism.

In Buddhism, the three marks of existence are three characteristics, that which is unsatisfactory or suffering (dukkha), and non-self (anattā).

These three characteristics are mentioned in verses 277, 278 and 279 of the Dhammapada.

The three marks are:

sabbe sakhārā aniccā   — "all sakhāras (conditioned things) are impermanent"
sabbe sakhārā dukkhā  — "all sakhāras are unsatisfactory"
sabbe dhammā anattā  — "all dhammas (conditioned or unconditioned things) are not self" 


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_marks_of_existence






                                


With respect to Daoism the modern Chinese idiom is a perversion of Hexagram #14 or the Great Possession.

Once one is strong and lucid, one has inner autonomy and cannot be moved by anything. This is real true practice. It is like the sun being in the sky, its light shining on everything, covering everything; nothing can deceive it. Yellow sprouts cover the earth, golden flowers bloom throughout the world; wherever one may walk, everywhere is the Tao. With the greatness of possession and the far range of action, nothing started fails to develop.

 Liu Yiming, Hexagram #14 Great Possesion, The Taoist I Ching.



http://www.taoistiching.org/14.html





D.卡尔顿 罗西




                       






               
Kong Greatest Sage Constellation


                                                                                                                  



孔 至聖 星座    Kong Greatest Sage Constellation


Trademark, D. Carlton Rossi  (2007-2019)





The Heaven now before us is only this bright shining spot; but when viewed in its inexhaustible extent, the sun, moon, stars, and constellations of the zodiac, are suspended in it, and all things are overspread by it.


Confucius, The Golden Mean, 中 庸
Chapter 26, Verse 9





孔 至聖 星座   Kong Greatest Sage Constellation  (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019) is unique as a constellation in several ways. First, it combines a seven and eight star cross-border asterism* into a single harmonized, eight star pattern of a new constellation. Second, it is viewed simultaneously from two different perspectives. Third, it is a joint creation of a Canadian poet in China and an American astronavigator in the United States who live spatially far apart. Fourth, it honours Master Kong whose core philosophy epitomizes peaceful harmony. Fifth, 孔 至聖 星座 TM includes our sun. Finally, this unique constellation integrally relates heaven, earth and man through poetry, philosophy and the sciences.

The idea of harmony is central to Confucian philosophy. Harmony is more important than anything else. For example, it is more important to establish harmony than agreement.

Harmony is the cultivation of the true self as a moral being. It begins in one's peaceful relationship to family members. If there is harmony in the family then everything goes well. Harmony is then carried out into society. Kong Zi says "Let the states of equilibrium and harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish". 中 庸, Chapter 1, Verse 5




孔 至聖 星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)



The constellation called 孔 至聖 星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)  is composed of four stars from Aquila; namely, 50 Aql, 53 Aql, 17 Aql and 13 Aql. Our sun is the fourth star. The constellation is completed with three stars from Hercules that are 111 Her, 110 Her and 113 Her.

孔 至聖 星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007) is a harmonization of two different viewpoints. It envisages how we perceive the stars from the planet earth and how we would perceive our own sun if we were on a planet near the star Sirius. Finally, both perspectives are balanced to create a third viewpoint or how we would perceive both simultaneously.

First, there is the viewpoint from the planet Earth. When we look up at the stars, we see a female Right Whale or Eubalaena Australis pattern. This baleen whale has no dorsal fin. We cannot usually see our own sun when we view the stars because the sun shines during the daytime. The seven star pattern viewed is called the Right Whale Asterism (D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright, 2005, 2006) (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007).

Second, there is the viewpoint from a planet close to Sirius. If we can imagine that we are standing on a planet near Sirius and looking back at Earth then a particular pattern is recognized. It is a male Orca Whale or Orcinus. Orcinus chases the Constellation Delphinus or The Dolphin. Orcinus has a prominent dorsal fin because now we can see our sun. The sun is in the position of the dorsal fin. It is an eight star pattern that may be called the Orca Asterism©. Finally, there is an harmonized viewpoint. We imagine that we are standing at the same time both on the Earth and a planet near Sirius. We now see both a Right Whale and an Orca Whale. The Orca Whale is swimming peacefully above the Right Whale. The Orca's dorsal fin is now joined with the Right Whale. It is an eight star pattern.


孔 至聖 星座 TM

D. Carlton Rossi, 2007


D. Carlton Rossi,  Rob Bradford, Copyright,  2005, 2006


KGSC

D. Carlton Rossi, Trademark, 2007

D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright, 2006





Variants

孔 至聖 星云 © Kong Greatest Sage Star Cloud ©
孔 至聖 星群 © Kong Greatest Sage Asterism ©

孔夫子 至聖 星座 © Confucius Greatest Sage Constellation ©
孔夫子 至聖 星云 © Confucius Greatest Sage Star Cloud ©
孔夫子 至聖 星群 © Confucius Greatest Sage Asterism ©

孔子 至聖 星座 © Master Kong Constellation ©
孔子 至聖 星云 © Master Kong Star Cloud ©
孔子 至聖 星群 © Master Kong Asterism ©

孔 圣 人 星座 © Confuciusage Constellation ©
孔 圣 人 星云 © Confuciusage Star Cloud ©
孔 圣 人 星群 © Confuciusage Asterism ©

*The Chinese word (子),the ancestral name of
Confucius should not be confused with the word
“master” as used in the style of Confucius “Master
Kong”(孔子)。



Confucius


All names of the eight stars, the harmonized pattern that may be viewed and the name 孔 至聖 星座 TM is trademarked.
Permission must be sought in order to duplicate, copy or reproduce them.

All rights reserved.

TM 2007 D. Carlton Rossi

D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford 2005, 2006, copyright



All variants of the name  孔 至聖 星座 TM their individual eight stars and their patterns are copyrighted.
Permission must be sought in order to duplicate, copy or reproduce them.

All rights reserved.

D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007

D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright, 2005, 2006





Right Whale Asterism©
Orca Asterism©


All stars of the seven star pattern called Right Whale Asterism© and the eight star pattern called Orca Asterism©, the patterns of Right Whale Asterism© and Orca Asterism© and the variants of Right Whale Asterism© and Orca Asterism© are copyrighted; as well as the names Right Whale Asterism © and Orca Asterism © are copyrighted.

Permission must be sought to duplicate, copy or reproduce them.

All rights reserved.

D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007

D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, copyright, 2005, 2006





LIST OF STARS
=============
(from fluke to head)


1. 50 Aql, Tarazed
2. 53 Aql, Altair
3. 17 Aql, Deneb el Okab, Deneb Australis
4. 13 Aql, Deneb el Okab, Deneb Borealis
5. Sol (our sun)
6. 111 Her
7. 110 Her
8. 113 Her


List of Stars, names of individual stars and the pattern of stars is trademarked.
Permission must be sought in order to duplicate, copy or reproduce them.
All rights reserved.

D. Cartlon Rossi, 2007, Trademark
D. Carlton Rossi Rob Bradford 2005, 2006 copyright.



Description of Stars




1. Tarazed


Common Name: Tarazed, Tarazet, Reda
Constellation Designation (Flamsteed): 50 Aql
Henry Draper Catalogue #186791
Hipparcos Catalogue #97278
Bayer: Gamma γ
Colour: bright orange to reddish

Tarazed Details

Description of Tarazed




2.Altair


Common Name: Altair
Constellation Designation (Flamsteed): 53 Aql
Henery Draper Catalogue #187642
Hipparcos Catalogue #97649
Bayer: Alpha α
Colour: yellowish white to white

Altair Details

Description of Altair





3. Deneb el Okab, Deneb Australis

Common Name: Deneb el Okab
Constellation Designation (Flamsteed): 17 Aql
Henry Draper Catalogue #177724
Hipparcos Catalogue #93747
Bayer: Zeta ζ
Colour: white
Mandarin name: Woo and Yu are derived from an old state near Jiangsu province and from an old state in Guandong province.


17 Aql Details


Description Deneb Zeta
http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/Dheneb.html

Aquila the Eagle
http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/Aquila.html

Deneb Australis




4. Deneb el Okab, Deneb Borealis


Common Name: Deneb el Okab
Constellation Designation (Flamsteed): 13 Aql
Henry Draper Catalogue #176411
Hipparcos Catalogue #94244
Bayer: Epsilon ε
Mandarin name: shares the name of Zeta Aql
Colour: orange

13 Aquila Details

Description of Deneb Epsilon (Delta?)
http://www.winshop.com.au/annew/DenebOkab.html

Deneb Borealis

Descriptions of Stars in Aquila




5. Sol (Our Sun)

Distance from earth = 8.31 minutes at speed of light
Absolute magnitude = 4.8m
Visual brightness = -26.8m
Roman name: Sol
Greek name: Helios

"How far away could we detect a star like the Sun with the Hubble Space Telescope?

With HST, it is possible to see Cepheids in the galaxy M100 which have apparent magnitudes of +26. Let us adopt this as the limit of apparent brightness that HST can "see". Therefore, our problem reduces to: at what distance would the Sun have an apparent magnitude of +26? The answer is 176,198 parsecs."

From the star Sirius, our sun would appear with the naked eye as a bright star. It would be the brightest star of 孔 至聖 星座 ©.



Our Sun from Afar




6. 111 Her


Constellation Designation (Flamsteed): 111 Her
HR #7069
HD 173880
SAO #104093
Colour: white

111 Her Details




7. 110 Her


Constellation Designation (Flamsteed) : 110 Her
HR #7061
HD #173667
SAO # 86406
Colour: white

Her 110 Details




8. 113 Her

Constellation Designation (Flamsteed): 113 Her
HR # 7133 (note: not 7113)
HD #175492
SAO # 86567
Colour: yellow

113 Her Details



Descriptions of Stars in Hercules




List of Stars, names of individual stars and the pattern of stars of 孔 至聖 星座  is trademarked.
Permission must be sought in order to duplicate, copy or reproduce them.
All rights reserved.

D. Calton Rossi, TM,  2007
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, copyright  2005, 2006.







The Future North Star


He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it. (Confucius, Analects)


"In about 12,000 years, the brightest star of the Constellation Lyre will become the North Star. A slight wobble in Earth's daily rotation causes our north pole to trace a circle among the stars every 26,000 years. This motion is called precession and it causes the pole to point at different stars over this 26,000 year period."

Starry Skies, Constellation Lyre
http://starryskies.com/articles/2004/07/lyra.html

The parallelogram shaped Lyre may be seen in the map of the early autumn skies where it is positioned at a higher latitude, but between a line running through the Constellation Hercules and Aquila.

The Constellation Lyre


North Circumpolar Stars which include Hercules and Lyre





---------------------------------------------------------------------------



*An asterism is a cluster of stars or a small constellation. A cross-border asterism is formed from the stars of more than one constellation. For example, The Lozenge is a small diamond formed from three stars (Eltanin, Grumium, and Rastaban) in the head of Draco and one star (Iota Herculis) found in the foot of Hercules.


see cross-border asterism

 


孔至聖星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)

孔 至聖 星座  
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, copyright, 2005, 2006-2019)








  





D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)




孔至聖星座  Kong Greatest Sage Constellation

(D . Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)






今夫天斯,昭昭之多及无穷也日月星辰系焉, 万物覆焉。 孔子《中庸》,第章,第九


现在展现在我们眼前的天空,只是一个明亮的闪光的点;但是当我们从无穷尽的范围观察它时, 黄道带的太阳、月亮、星星 和星座, 悬挂在其中并且一切都分布在其中。 孔教, <<中庸>>






孔至聖星座 (D. Carlton Rossi TM, 2007) 为一个星座都是独一无二的。首先, 它把七八个相互交叉的星群联合成为一个单一的八星形式的新星座,一个新星座中的八星样式。其次, 它可以从两个不同的方位去观察;第三, 这是一位在中国的加拿大诗人和相距遥远的美国星座观察者共同发现的。第四, 它以核心哲学代表平安和谐的孔圣人的名字命名。第五,孔至聖星座© 包括了我们的太阳。最后, 这个独一无二的星座通过诗歌、哲学和科学把天、地球和人类有机的联系到了一起。

谐观点是孔子哲学的核心。和谐重于一切。例如,创建和谐比起签订协议更重要。 谐是一个有道德的人真实的自我的修炼。它起始于一个人同家庭其他成员之间的和谐关系。家和万事继而和谐在社会中得到光大。在 《中庸之道》中, 孔子认为"让平衡和和谐存在于完美之中, 令人愉悦的秩序遍及天地之, 万物昌盛"
"
致中和, 天地位焉,万物育焉"


孔至聖 星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM 2007-2019 )



被称为孔至聖星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM 2007) 的星座是由来自武仙座的三颗恒星, 即武仙113, 武仙 110和武仙111 组成的 。它们与来自天鹰座(Aquila)的四颗恒星——即:天13, 17, 和天50, 53 连在一起 。最后, 就是我们的太阳(或者叫Sol),总共有八颗恒星。

孔至聖星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007) 是两种不同视点的和谐。它设想我们怎样从行星地球上观察星星和假如我们是在靠近天狼星(Sirius)的行星上,我们怎么去观察我们的太阳。最后, 两种观察得到平衡,创造了第三个视点,也就是:我们怎么同时观察两者。

首先, 有来自行星地球的视点。当我们抬头观看星星时, 们看到一个雌性的露脊鲸(或欧洲鲸)样子的星座© 这头带须的鲸鱼没有背鳍。因为是夜间,我们不能看我们自己的太阳。这是可以被称为露脊鲸的七星样式©。第二,是从靠近天狼星的一颗行星的视点。如果我们 能想象我们站立在天狼星附近的行星上向后看地球,那么就可以发现一种特别的形式。这是一头雄性海怪鲸鱼(Orcinus 这头鲸鱼在追逐海豚星座(Delphinus)。海怪鲸鱼有突出的背鳍,因为此时我们能看见我们的太阳。太阳是在背鳍的位置。它是一种可以称为海怪鲸的 八星样式星©

最后, 有一个谐调的视点。我们可以想象, 们在同一时间站在地球上和一颗天狼星附近的行星上,我们就既可以看见一头露脊鲸又可以看见一头海怪鲸。海怪鲸正在露脊鲸上边的水面上安静地游水。海怪鲸的背鳍现在和露脊鲸交接在一起。这是一种八星样式。

孔至聖星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford Copyrigtht, 2005, 2006-2019)

KGSC
D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright,  2006-2019)





不同的名称 © 


至聖 星云 ©
至聖 星群 ©

孔夫子 至聖 星座 ©
孔夫子 至聖 星云 ©
孔夫子 至聖 星群 ©

孔子 至聖 星座 ©
孔子 至聖 星云 ©
孔子 至聖 星群 ©

星座 ©
星云 ©
星群 ©

D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright,  20052006-2019)


*
不要把孔夫子祖先名字的汉字同孔子为一谈。 孔夫子




这八颗星星的名字——可以看得见的协调的排列样式和孔至聖星座©的名字都受知识产权保护。 经允许,不得使用。
保留所有权利。
D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright,  2005
2006-2019)


名字的所有变异,孔至聖星座 (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019),它们各自的八个星座及它们的排列样式也是受知识产权保护的。
经允许,不得使用。
保留所有权利
孔至聖星座


D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright,  2005, 2006-2019)



露脊鲸星群©
海怪鲸星群©

D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Copyright, 2005, 2006-2019)


七星式星座中所有的星星被©为露脊鲸星群©,被称为海怪星群的八星式星座©。露脊鲸星群©和海怪星群©的排列样式,以及它们的变异都受知识产权保护露脊鲸星群©和海怪星群©的名称也是受知识产权保护的。
经允许,不得使用。
保留所有权利。

D. Carlton Rossi, Trademark, 2007-2019)
 D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright,  2005, 2006-2019)













星星名列表 
 (D.Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
(D. Carlton Rossi, Copyright, 2005, 2006-2019):
= = = = = = = = = =

(
鲸鱼群的尾部至鲸鱼群的头部)



1.
50

2.
53, 牵牛星

3.
17, 南天

4.
13, 北天

5.
太阳

6.
武仙111

7.
武仙110

8.
武仙113



星星名单、各个星星和星座的名字是受知识产权保护的。
经允许,不得使用。 保留所有权利。
D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
 D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford , copyright, 2005
,2006-2019)




至聖 星座
D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford , Copyright, 2005, 2006-2019)

对星星的描述


1.
牧羊童sTarazed

通用名: 牧羊童(Tarazed, Tarazet, Reda
星座认定(Flamsteed: 50鹰(50 Aql
Henry Draper
编目#186791
Hipparcos
编目#97278
贝尔: 盖莫(Bayer:Gamma γ
星的颜色: 鲜橙色到红色 牧羊童的细节

对牧羊童星的描述




2.
牵牛星
通用名: 牵牛星
星座指定: 53
Henry Draper
编目#187642
Hipparcos
编目#97649
贝尔: 尔法
颜色:


牵牛星的细节s

 






3.
南天

通用名:,
星座认定(Flamsteed:17鹰座
Henry Draper
编目#177724
Hipparcos
编目#93747
贝尔: 泽塔(Zeta ζ
颜色:白色
汉语名字: 吴和粤是从江苏省附近古老的国家广东省附近的古老的国家演变而来的)。

17细节


 


4.
北天
通用名:天
星座指定(Flamsteed: 13
Henry Draper
编目#176411
Hipparcos
编目#94244
贝尔:Epsilon ε
汉语名字: 共用泽塔Zeta Aql 的名字
颜色:橙色
13细节

对天鹅星的描述
 



5.
太阳

离地球的距离=光速8.31
绝对亮度=4.8m
视觉亮度=-26.8m
罗马名字:Sol
希腊名字:Helios

用哈勃太空望远镜我们可观察到多远的像太阳那样的星星?

用哈勃太空望远镜可能看见100M银河系中辐射点在仙王星座明显亮度+26的流星)。让我们把这一点当作哈勃能的限度。于是,我们的问题降低为:太阳会以什么速度有可视+26的亮度?答案是:176198秒差距。

从天狼星上,我们的太阳用裸眼看起来像一颗的明亮的星星。它是孔至圣星座©

Our Sun from Afar


6.
武仙111
星座认定(Flamsteed):武仙111
HR #7069
HD 173880
SAO #104093
颜色:

武仙111细节





7.
武仙110

星座认定(Flamsteed):武仙110
HR #7061
HD 173667
SAO #86406
颜色:


武仙110细节




8.
武仙座113

星座认定(Flamsteed):武仙113
HR# 7133 (
: 没有7113)
HD #175492
SAO # 86567
颜色:黄


武仙座113细节



对武仙座中星星的描述






星星名, 各自的名字, 孔至聖星座星星的排列形式都受知识产权保护。 使用必须获得允许。
保留所有权利。
D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2019)
© D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford 2005
, 2006 -2019)



未来的北斗星




以德治国者可以被比作北斗星, 这颗星位置稳定,所有的星星都朝它转。(孔子《论语》)

"
过大约12,000 , 天琴座(Lyre)中的最明亮的星将成为北斗星。地球每日自转过程中的轻微的摆动导致我们的北极在星星之中每26,000 转一圈。这叫做岁差,而这导致26,000 年指向不同的星。"

满天星斗的天空, 星座天琴 http://starryskies.com/articles/2004/07/lyra.html

平行四边形的天琴座可以在初秋天空中的天体图中看见,它位于一个较高的纬度, 但是在穿过武仙座和天鹰座的线之间。

 





- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




星群是一群星星或一个小星座。一个相互交接的星群是由一个以上的星座组成的。例如, 菱形座(Lozenge)是一个像钻石一样的星群,它由天龙座顶部的三颗星星(Eltanin Grumium Rastaban) 和一颗在武仙座底部的一颗星星(Iota Herculis) 组成。


 

就法律方面,英文版优先于中文译文版。


编码简化汉字GB2312


图象样式可以通过程序Starry Night 5 或者Celestica








D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford Copyright, 2005-2006-2019)
All rights reserved

D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007-2016-2019)
All Rights Reserved







大尊天空的狮头人像



The poems of D. Carlton Rossi are written in Free-Form.  One “F” symbolizes Freedom or the expression of the poet.  The other “F” represents Form or the order recognized by the philosopher.  The letters are integrated in such a way to resemble the Chinese character for day or Sun with the exception that they are not joined.


                                                                  

                         
© D. Carlton Rossi



Two poems written by DCR are intricately connected to Mr. Sun Dawu in both their poetic and philosophical content. In terms of philosophy, “The Question Mark” deals mainly with the relation of part to whole. The Question Mark helps a person understand himself/herself by looking at himself/herself  through the eyes of another. The poem is dedicated to Sun Dawu.  It was written two days before our arrest. This is the tenth anniversary of that fateful day.

“Golden Sol” primarily concentrates on the relationship of subject to object by observing the stars.  It helps us understand ourselves by looking at ourselves from the viewpoint of another or of an alien race far from earth or ourselves far from our water planet we call Earth. 

                                                  

 

 

The Question Mark


Where may answer be found
to what I wish to know?

Perhaps discovered nowhere as
it's indefinite prop pose all.

If a partial answer is possible
then I'll consider closing clue.

Question is punctuated by
sphinx seeming mistory.

Answer is part of quest i on
while also apart from it.

As part relates to part and whole,
so, too, is answer to question.

Should I consider the relations
as base to right half of bulb?

A usefool but unuseful answer
since it sheds not even art.light.

Should I deem relations of circular-
ocular yin-yang pat form?

While the relations are complementary;
nevertheless, it is an abstract tu.

Interrogate point might mimitate
distant Dipper and Polaris.

Or no to do so is of
an arbitrary pattern.

Finally, should I regard the human
face to solve the enigma?

Period part is nothing as partial zero
or left closed-lidded seeyecret.

Contiguous part is incomplete no. two
or raised right eyebrow and bridge.

If sets though are linked,
they're almost opposites on my face.

High brow with shut adjoining eye:
brow low with open adjacent orb.

Maybe two sets of questions
should be asked and answers quested.

I see with one of my eyes open
another's eye multiple-mirror mine.


Dedicated to SUN Dawu (Langwuzhuang,Xu Shui,Hebei)

© D. Carlton Rossi, May 25, 2003  

 

 

The poem called “The Question Mark” originated from preparation for a lecture given to students of the Dawu School at the auditorium in May 2003. At that time, DCR was helping Sun establish a university at Dawu village in co-operation with several universities and colleges in China, Canada and Japan.

DCR examined the actual punctuation mark called the question mark. He concluded it could be considered as two related parts; namely, question and answer.  The question part can be seen in the wave and the answer part is the period at the bottom of the wave.

At the lecture he asked the question “Who is Sun?” The actual answer was intended for a younger audience, but the intent could be expressed in the following sentence “Sun is a philosopher.” The word “Sun” is found in the question, but it is also found in the answer just as both the wave and period are found in the punctuation mark and as the period is found in both the punctuation mark and at the end of the statement.  In other words, the answer is embedded in the question. More simply put, once you have defined the question you are half-way to finding the answer.

It may also be said that the wave is the poet and the period is the philosopher.  This viewpoint develops in the poem called La Lune. Light was divided into its two component parts of wave and particle; however, they overlap in some aspects or respects.

 

“La lumière du soleil—composée de deux faces—éclaire le visage de la lune méniscale.”


trans.

Sunlight (consists of two faces) which illuminates the meniscus moon (or concavo-convex lensed moon).

 

In one way, Sun shows a development from particle to wave over the last decade as he makes a transition from philosopher to poet.




                       

                           Big Dipper Asterism

The Big Dipper is an asterism of seven stars. It points north to the eighth star or Polaris.  Marcus Terentius Varro said that the word trion means "plough ox" and derives from tero, one of whose meanings is "thresh grain by rubbing". This implies that the seven stars (oxen) perpetually wheel about the pole star like oxen on a threshing floor.

Confucius’ view (expressed in the Analects) of the north star was that “he who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.” 

The Chinese look upon the seven stars of the Great Bear as forming a natural clock… the tail appeared to move round the pole somewhat like the hand of a clock or watch.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/index.htm
see Confucianism folder, Feng Shui file, The Laws of Nature, Chapter II, Ernest Eitel, 1883

 

   

                      

                                     
           
D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007            

               D. Carlton Rossi, Rob Bradford, Copyright, 2005,2006

            

The poem called “Golden Sol” is a metrical, rhythmical poem in the form of a dialogue that integrates subject-object in a complex way.  On one level it may be considered as a dialogue between Alexander the Great and his admiral Nearchus.  They look at the same stars.  However, it is evident that they see different patterns.  The conflict is resolved when one goes beyond oneself and sees the stars from the vantage point of someone else a great distance away. 

“Golden Sol” is the only poem written by DCR in cooperation with another person. DCR cooperated through the internet to write his poem with Robert Bradford who is an amateur astronomer in the United States. In one sense the discussion with Bradford mirrors the dialogue between Alexander and Nearchus in “Golden Sol” in regard to star patterns. The computer programs used were Starry Night 5 and Celestica. 

 

 

                                         

    The Wounded Alexander Passing Through His Fleet In India,  A. Castione 1898-99

 

DCR wanted to convey the synthesis of static and dynamic as both he and the astronomer looked at the same stars.  At first, DCR saw a seahorse (dynamic) and an anchor (static) in the stars.  The androgynous seahorse represented Alexander and the anchor represented Nearchus.  However, the astronomer saw a different pattern or that of a whale.  DCR then modified his view after considering the astronomer’s observation and saw two whales one of which was dynamic (Alexander as the male killer whale) and one static (Nearchus as the female-like Eubalaena whale). The third mammal was a dolphin in the constellation Delphinus.  Both poet and astronomer came to agreement on the pattern of the constellation.



                       

 

                               

                    至聖 星座  (TM 2007-2019  D. Carlton Rossi)                     




Golden Sol

These pearly eyes number more
than grains of sand on ocean's shore.
Yet orb shines as autumnal star
like lustrous Achilleus from afar.

My Lord, Eubalaena breaches
in milky sea off heaven's beaches.
Leviathan grazes at her leisure
on krill of shrimp-size measure.

Nearchus, son of Androtimus,
behold bold killer Orcinus!
He agilely attacks the dolphin
known as Delphinus fleet-of-fin.

Do we see what there is to see
or rather what there appears to be?
I perceive three in Herakles kneeling
and another four in Aquila veering.

New moon rises while golden Sol
shows itself as eighth in dorsal.
Orca above and Eubalaena below
swim in harmonious celestial flow.

 
(© D. Carlton Rossi)


                      

 

There is a reference in The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great to Nearchus sighting whales.  The date would be about September 20th or 21st which coincides roughly with Confucius’ birth date.  Confucius was born on the 20th day after the eclipse of the sun which took place in the 10th month of 552 B.C.


"“when they were sailing along the coast from Kyiza, just at daylight they saw a stream of water spurting out from the sea as though it were being forced up by squalls of wind; and alarmed at this they asked the guides what this thing was and what caused it; and they replied that there were whales moving along under the surface spouting water. Nearchus says that the oars fell from the hands of the sailors in fright; and he went along the line of ships to rouse their spirits and cheer them…”

The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great, Lionel Pearson, pp.136-137.
Anabasis of Alexander and Indica, Chapter XXX, p.436.

 

In the preparation of his poem DCR was confronted by a scientific question.  The question was “Were there more stars in the heavens than grains of sand on the earth?”  He had to consult a mathematical expert on this issue to determine the answer. There are approximately 300 sextillion stars in the universe or much more than the grains of sand.  The answer reminded the poet of an anecdote from Plutarch.  When Alexander learned from Anaxarchus that there was an infinite number of worlds his reaction was to weep.  He explained his behavior by asking a question. “Do you not think it a matter worthy of lamentation that when there is such a vast multitude of them, we have not yet conquered one”?

Another basic question perplexed DCR.  Both westerners and easterners have seen many patterns in the sky.    However, why has no one included our sun in any constellation?  It is obvious that our sun appears in the day and the stars appear at night. Under what special circumstances though might we see both constellations and our sun at the same time so that we join the universe of constellations?  It might be possible to see constellations and our sun when there is an eclipse of the sun or if one were outside the boundaries of earth and looking back in space and time.


  

                    
                          

            Eclipse of May 28, 1900                Visible Stars and Planets

               Thomas Smillie, Wadesboro, NC                        Edward Walter Maunder


                         

It is not so uncommon for individuals to have observed stars at the time of a total eclipse of the sun.  Historically speaking, Clavius records that during the eclipse of August 21, 1560 “there was darkness greater than that of night, no one could see where he trod and the stars shone very brightly in the sky”. (Maunder, p.186).  More recently, on May 28, 1900, there was a total eclipse of short duration about which was stated that even second magnitude stars were visible.  Some stars that several observers saw were Sirius, Castor, Pollux, Aldebaran, Rigel, Betelgeux, Capella and Tauris Epsilon. If the duration of the eclipse is longer it means that at mid-totality the darkness increases and a greater number of stars is recognized.  

Maunder, Edward Walter, The Total Solar Eclipse, British Astronomical Association, Knowledge Office, London: 1901.

              



                  
                           
          T. Adams, FSU, www.hep.fsu.edu/~tadams/oldcourses/fall02/ast1002/...







                                                                      


                                     Negative of the Eclipsed Sun taken by Eddington’s team in 1919



Modern scientists have used Gravitational Lensing to observe the bending of light by gravity. This process involves the measurement of the location of stars during a total eclipse of the sun. The first demonstration of the Theory of Relativity was made in this way by Eddington in 1919.

Henry Davis Russell wrote a paper in the February 1937 edition of “Scientific American” called “A Relativistic Eclipse”.  Russell considered taking Sirius’ companion as a gravitational lens and Sirius itself as the light source. He speculated that if an observer stood on a planet of Sirius B during the intermediate stage of an eclipse then it might be observed that “a bright crescent has appeared on the opposite side of the eclipsing disk”.

John J. Stachel, J. Renn, Abhay Ashtekar, Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 2003, p.85



The year was 326 B.C.E.  Alexander had just conquered four empires. He was in India. Through the symbol of a loving cup at a banquet of 9000 he proposed Homonoia or a reconciliation of all races. “He brought together into one body all men everywhere, as it were, their lives, their characters, their marriages, their very habits of life” (Plutarch, Alexander). Finally, the fleet under Admiral Nearchus sailed westward along the coast.

What were the pattern of the stars they saw? Furthermore, what were the patterns of the stars one might have seen if one were standing on a planet near Sirius B and looking back at earth in that year? The patterns are fairly similar because our Earth is relatively close to Sirius B.   To answer these questions it was necessary to use an astronomy program to understand how things may have been perceived. We utilized Starry Skies 5 and Celestica. 

It is unlikely that either star has a planet around it.  The brightest visible star or Sirius A is spinning too rapidly.  The brightest X-ray source or Sirius B is a White Dwarf which previously probably consumed all planets that might have been around it.  Furthermore, a binary star system does not favor planets.  It is possible though that there is a planet, but it hasn’t yet been seen. 

Both poet and astronomer decided to concentrate on the constellations Hercules (武仙), Aquila (天鷹) and Delphinus(海豚).  Some seven stars were chosen from Hercules and Aquila.  These were to form the basis of a new constellation (technically speaking an asterism).  The eighth star was our sun or Sol.

These western constellations are associated with Chinese constellations, too. The earlier kneeling Hercules of Greek astronomy includes nine Chinese constellations. The most important one is called the Emperor’s Seat.  
         

The second constellation is Delphinus.  It includes two Chinese constellations.  They are called the Good and Bad Gourd.

 

 

       

                                 Altair and Vega


The constellation Aquila represents the eagle of western tradition. It is responsible for spiriting the soul.  It includes five Chinese constellations. Particular stars of this general region are quite familiar to most Chinese. In Chinese myth, the herdsman Ch'ien Niu (the star Altair) is separated from his lover Chih Nu (the star Vega) by the Sun King or T'ien-tsin for neglect of their duties. They are separated by the river (Milky Way). The princess is sorrowful and asks help of the birds (Aquila and Cygnus "swan"). Her sorrow is heard by the swallows who form a bridge. The Milky Way is found, too, in the painting of KGSC. (TM 2007D. Carlton Rossi)  More particularly, you will see Aql 53 or Altair as part of KGSC (TM 2007D. Carlton Rossi).

In ancient times, the Yellow River was believed to be a continuation of the Milky Way. Zhang Qian was said to have been commissioned to find the source.  He talked to the Weaving Girl and was presented a shuttle with instructions.  


                                                                

                古詩十九首 GUSHI SHIJIU SHOU 

                                      (Nineteen Old Poems)

                    之十 ZHI SHI (no.10)



                                           迢迢牽牛星

                                   皎皎河漢女

                                   纖纖擢素手

                                   札札弄機杼

                                   終日不成章

                                   泣涕零如雨

                                   河漢清且淺

                                   相去復幾許

                                   盈盈一水間

                                   脈脈不得語




                  

                                                     

                 
       
   D. Carlton Rossi    TM    2007-2019

 

In Kong Greatest Sage Constellation (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007) the sun was at the critical position of the dorsal fin of Orcinus.  In honour of Kong Zi or Confucius the constellation is called Kong Greatest Sage Constellation (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007) or  至聖 星座 ( D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007).The constellation represented a harmonization of subject-object.  It also represented a harmonization of western and eastern astronomy, mythologies and cosmologies.

 

 

 

                   


“In this rendition, we see in the background the three bright stars that make up the Summer Triangle: Altair, Deneb, and Vega. Altair is the white dot above Sirius A; Deneb is the dot to the upper right; and Vega lies below Sirius B. But there is one unfamiliar addition to the constellations: our own Sun is the second-magnitude star, shown as a small dot just below and to the right of Sirius A.”  
             
 

http://spacespin.org/article.php?story=hubble-einstein-weigh-sirius-a





                       

                     Achilles                 Alexander

           
                    

“Golden Sol” begins with a reference to the “autumnal star” which is associated with Achilles. “Bright as the autumnal star above his head.” Homer, The Iliad, ed. Molesworth, Book Five, lines 1-5. This star is Sirius B.  Alexander’s gaze would be directed to this star because he identified himself closely with the hero—Achilles.

The hidden star, Sirius B, was also associated with the Egyptian god whose name was Osiris.  His wife was Isis (Sirius A). The annual eclipses of the Sirius system by the sun are precisely 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 9.54 seconds. Therefore, the heliacal rising of Sirius marked the first day of the ancient Egyptian calendar.  At that time, Isis’ tears would flood the valley of the Nile to mourn the death of her lost husband. The Milky Way was regarded as the celestial Nile.  It was believed that the Milky Way descended from the celestial lakes and continued in the lakes and Nile below.  (Gerald Massey 2008)

                                    
 

                          
                          
The Star Sirius is overhead

 

Hindu tradition associates the AUM sound with this binary star system.  The orbit of Sirius B produces the tone of F and the sound “A”.  The orbit of Sirius A produces the tone of F# and the sound “U”.  Their vibratory dance in a combined double helix linear motion produces the tone G and the sound “M”.  AUM is a unified and harmonic sound.                             

 


                                                            

                  Optical baseband audio scintillation of the star Sirius.

                                              http://www.dd1us.de/spacesounds%206.html

                                



Orcas have the ability to produce harmonic sounds with different fundamental frequency (Dahlheim, Awbrey 1982, Ford 1984.  Pulsed sounds have been observed with clear harmonics or sidebands and energy redistribution to the higher harmonics. (Ford 1984). It is typical for killer whale calls to show harmonic loading to 10kHz or more (Hoelzel & Osborne 1986; Ford 1991; Miller & Bain 2000).

Southern Right Whale harmonics were detected off the Auckland Islands. The vocalizations were predominantly below 1 khz; although some extended upwards to 5 khz. (Webster & Dawson 2010).  In a recording of Northern right whales the Cornell Lab of Ornithology concludes “the calls appear as harmonics at multiple frequencies of the primary call”.

The Chinese regarded Sirius B as the wolf star because of its white color.  The Chinese called Sirius by the name of 天狼星 tian láng xing; tenrosei) or literally the heavenly wolf star. They knew this place as the bridge between heaven and hell. 

There are actually three Sirius stars; namely Sirius A, B and C.  Sirius A and B are remarkable in terms of their relationship.  They are pulled together and switch positions every 49.9 years.  One may consider their corresponding partners to be Eubalaena and Orcinus respectively while the smaller dolphin would correspond to Sirius C.


每隔49.9 ,天狼星 A B, 在它们的轨道允许的情况下尽可能亲密接触, 从而在它们之间造成巨大的磁性风暴。当它们互相接近时,随着潮汐力量的加强,颗星星的转速不断加快, 最后突然翻, 实际上相互交换位置。 中国人把Sirius 命名为天狼星。他们把这个地方作为天堂和地狱之间的桥梁, 召集人和法官之间的桥梁。在较高级的头脑里,汇集了个人的经验的结晶。在每一个生命之间, 灵魂会判断有助于他未来成长的过去的进步及境况。只要它和欲望, 灵感相结合并且需要体验, 就会形成肉体。一个人的灵魂无法通过这座"桥梁" ,除非他的灵魂达到了完善的程度。 天狼星是北半球最明亮的星。它看起来是一个白色的星球,大约比我们的太阳亮10倍。大约在公元前100年,司马迁在《史记宫书》中描述它白比

 

Orcinus had been chasing its quarry—the dolphin. However, it gives up the chase because of the special time, place and occasion.  The aggressive meat-eating killer whale and the sedate, plankton-eating Eubalaena meet.  They perform a dance in a new constellation abbreviated KGSC (TM 2007 D. Carlton Rossi).  In the poem “Golden Sol”, it is unclear whether it is Alexander or the poet who transports himself to a planet near Sirius B.  He looks back and sees an eight star constellation including our sun which resembles a new pattern of two whales. 

The painting of the event extends and expands the poetic experience.  DCR commissioned a Russian oil painter named Sasha of the Art Department at Linyi University to capture the poetic imagination in a painting to be presented as a gift for Sun Dawu.  One sees scene simultaneously from two different perspectives.  The first perspective is from a water planet around Sirius B.  The whales are visible in an eight star constellation along with the dolphin.

 



                       
                         

A picnic near a Daoist temple which is located a few hours away from Linyi. The time is about 2006. The group is composed of Russian artists among who is Sasha in the top right hand corner. DCR is looking back.

 

 

                       

                                    Right Whale

The three cetaceans (whales and dolphins) are prominent in the picture.  The first is a Right Whale which is one of the biggest animals. A typical example is the southern Eubalaena Australis.  Eubalaena is a baleen whale which filters plankton and tiny crustaceans.  It is common for this whale to have white patches on its skin. They are called callosities which appear white due to large colonies of cyamids.  In this case, the callosities correspond to the pattern of the seven stars in the new constellation. 


 

                         

                                  Orcinus   You Tube



                                                           

The second whale is Orcinus or a “killer whale”.  It is the largest member of the dolphin family. It has a diverse diet of fish, squid, sharks etc.  On its back is an arch shaped dorsal fin. The Orcinus is undertaking a true breach which means it twists its body upside down and lands on its back. 

 



                                                   

                                  Bottlenose Dolphin

The third cetacean is a bottlenose dolphin.  The dolphin is a hunter which eats fish and squid.  Its enemy is the Orca and sharks.  It is small in size and grows to about 3.7 meters.    

                                 


 

                                   

                 Narwhal                                   

                                       

Another cetacean that appears in the painting is that of a Narwhal.  This animal is normally found in Canadian Arctic waters, but makes a special appearance here.  It has a long tusk so it is often referred to as the unicorn of the sea.  This particular Narwhale represents the Chinese Qilin    which appeared to the pregnant mother of Confucius. It is said thought though that the first Qilin appeared in the garden of the legendary Huangdi.      

 

 

                                           

                           (D. Carlton Rossi, TM, 2007)


The second perspective takes place at the time of an eclipse. It is from the seas of the planet Earth. It is said, too, that  was born at the time of an eclipse of the sun.   The seas are tumultuous. The clouds stream in typical Chinese pattern. Two large whales are together in a dance celebrating the birth of Confucius.  One of them, Orcinus, is breaching upside down. The arc of its dorsal fin represents the arc of the eclipse as the horn of the Qilin represents the arc of light of an eclipsed sun. The Narwhal is the sea equivalent of the Qilin.  It is present here as was the Qilin at the time of Confucius’ birth. It points with its tusk to the point of the arc on the Orca’s dorsal fin. Its fin is below the lighted arc of the eclipse.



 



                                                The NCP Rectangle   

 

The harmonization of opposing lines of the Sphinx and Qilin was done by the rectangle. The rectangle is not a natural shape found on the earth. It was though found in the heavens. Of paramount importance was the North Circumpolar Rectangle. This rectangle was located between the Big and Little Dipper.  The highest Egyptian and Chinese gods were found there. At the top and middle of this rectangle were the paired pole stars observed around 3000 B.C.E. in Egypt and China. This event was of critical circumstance and pivotal importance for both civilizations.   

 

                          Illustration of the  NCP Rectangle


                           
                                                          
 

                                            

The NCP Rectangle was identified by John C. Didier in terms of its importance to ancient cultures. Two stars of the Big Dipper are found on the left corners of the rectangle and two stars of the Little Dipper are found on the right corners. At the top of the rectangle is shown 11 Draconis (Thuban) or the former pole star.  It was actually paired with 10 Draconis as was the Dragon and Phoenix in both the celestial and terrestrial realms of  Chinese civilization.                                 

In both civilizations it might be speculated that there was a duality between the numbers one and four.  These numbers may have represented birth and death respectively. One began the sequence and four ended it. In China, April 4th or the fourth day of the fourth month is still celebrated as Tomb Sweeping Day.

It might be guessed that the number five (or four plus one) represented rebirth.  This may be suggested because both the Qilin and Sphinx may be regarded as composed of five parts that were reassembled. In the case of Egypt, the body of Osiris after dismemberment was reconstructed through a rebirth. The Qilin was said to have parts of maybe ox, horse, deer, carp and dragon. The earliest mention of the five elements “wuxing” can be found in the Shu Jing. The first model for the perfect government of a nation discusses the five elements.

Their beliefs of rebirth differed. If one wishes to oversimplify them it might be said that the soul or spirit would return from the celestial rectangle. For the Egyptians it seems to mean that the soul would return to a reassembled body.  For the Chinese it seems to mean family worship of the deceased in the underworld and a kind of immortality when a son carried on the family name.  Today, of course, officially speaking, if you intend to be reborn you must fill out a form under State Religious Affairs Bureau Order No. 5.

 

The NCP Rectangle was important for several reasons to these civilizations and others about five millenia ago.

a)  the stars of the north rotated about a pivotal point which was 11 Draconis or the pole star which served as a guide

b)  11 Draconis (big) and 10 Draconis (little) were a binary pair

c)  the pole stars were located at the same distance by way of the NCP between the Big and Little Dipper asterisms

d)  the pole stars were located at the tail of the Dragon (specifically, they were in third place from the end of the spear)

e) at this time, both the Eqyptian and Chinese civilizations undertook the transition from a lunar to a solar calendar so that their time seemed to pivot around the pole stars ie. there was balance in the lunar-solar calendars

f)  it may be that 11 Draconis was recognized as an equivalent of the sun and 10 Draconis a counterpart of the moon

g) both the Big and Little Dippers consisted of seven stars where geometric relations were recognized which included the pole stars

h)  four star configurations were seen in both Dippers which appeared as geometric rectangles (cups)

i)  the Big  Dipper asterism was part of the Great Bear Constellation


 
John C. Didier, "In and Outside the Square: The Sky and the Power of Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 B.C--AD. 200, Sino-Platonic Papers 192, September 2009.